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GREEK

LANGUAGE

 

By  A. G. KRASSANAKIS

 

Translation in English

by ART PERDIKIS

 

 

 

 

 

_Mechanisms, rules, parts of speech, history etc of Greek Language

_Greek language is the most easiest and perfect in the world

_Greek language and Greek script (writing, grammars) is base of all European (English, German etc) languages and scripts (writings)

 

 

SBN 960 – 85089 – 2 - 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1st

THE ELEMENTS OF WORDS

  

 

1. The language and the words

 

Language is said (called) the total of words that with concrete rules of changes and combinations between them (with concrete syntax rules and inclination rules) a population is using in order to understand or to express. It is the tool of expression or the way with which the persons understand between them (each other) and reveal the feelings and the thought them.

 Word is said (called) the smallest intellectual piece that is a sentence element hence an element of speech. It is an organized sounding mark (sign) which express a certain meaning of a sentence, according to its certain elements (root, subject, ending etc) or a part of speech (noun, adjective, pronoun etc. I.e.

 

Proposition (sentence): I am tailor = Εγώ είμαι ράπτης (Greek)

Words: I (= pronoun), am (verb), tailor (noun),

Εγώ (= noun), είμαι (= verb), ράπτης (= noun).

 

The meaning of words depends on their part of speech and their type (gender, number, case or person) as well as on their kind of simple derivation or composition. Their meaning, therefore, is regulated by the relationship of their components (prefix, root or them, ending or accent in case of simple word and a’ + b’ components in the case of compound (composite) words. I.e.:

Greek: γράφ-ω, γραφ-ή, συν-γραφ-έας, καλ-ός,ή,οί..

English: write, writ-ing, writ-er, good, good-s..

 

(Greek alphabet and his pronouncing

see in end of this book.)

 

Note:

1) The meaning of a monosyllabic word or a words without constituent elements concern on what position (place) they are put in a sentence or on witch word is before them; namely if they are used as conjunctions or as proverbs i.e.:

English: The love, of love &  I love, you love, he love..

Greek: Η μάνα μου μου είπε. Πως θα πας & Είπε πως θα πάμε.

Some times the meaning of a word it depends on his tone (which syllable is toned or if it is with strong or soft tone), see in Greek: πότε & ποτέ, η & ή, ε & έ

2) In the syntax of speech the nouns’ meaning becomes also more specialized by articles, adjectives and participles. i.e.:

Greek: Πήρα γράμμα & Πήρα το γράμμα. Μικρό γράμμα & μεγάλο γράμμα.

English: I took letter & I took the letter. Small letter & large letter

 

 

2. The generation of Greek words

 

The Greek words are formed (borne) by the Greeks, time to time, through:

a) Sound making

Sound made words are those made by the imitation of sounds in the environment i.e.: β... > βοώ, βόμβος, βόμβα... μπαμμπουμ > μπαλωθιά, μπαρούτι, μπουμπουνητό, μπόμπα...   τρ... > τρίβω, τρίζω, τρυπάνι... γαβγαβ  > γαβγίζω.... (See in English: bomb,  cry, …)

b) Derivation:

Derived wards are those who born from another, i.e.: κράτος > κρατικός, (See in English: govern > government, love > lovely…)

c) Composition (synthesis):

Compounded words are those who born from two or more others: δια + κράτος > δια- κρατικός, αστυ-φύλακας

(See in English: police-man, land-lord, Englishman….) 

d) Falsification

 Falsified words are those who born from other with phthongic alteration (which means addition, abstraction, transposition-removal or alternation) of a sounding in an ancient word i.e.: χώρα (τόπου) & (χ)ώρα > ώρα (χρόνου), κόνις >(σ)κόνη, πυρία > (σ)πύρ(τ)α, σπόγγος > σφουγγάρι...

(See in English: live (pronunciation “laiv”)> living (pronunciation “livink”), athlete > athleticism…) 

e) Abusive derivation which means changing the:

a. Type (= the gender, the case and the number) of an ancient word, i.e.: αι Αθήναι>η Αθήνα, αι Θήβαι > η θήβα, ο έμπορος, > η έμπορος, ο σύζυγος > η σύζυγος.

b. The part of speech (an adjective turned into a noun, for instance) of an ancient word, i.e.: κεραμική, μηχανική (Here the words are adjectives) ... τέχνη  > η κεραμική, η μηχανική (Here the words are nouns), Same: παράγωγος > ο παραγωγός, παράγωγη > η παραγωγή, ζεστή > η ζέστη,

c. The typological ending (form) of an ancient word (let’s refer, for instance, the abolition of the third kind of ancient accidence – conjugation): λύσ-ις > λύσ-η, οντότ-ης > οντότ-ητα, Ελλά-ς > Ελλ-άδα, ρήτ-ωρ > ρήτ-ορας, κλητ-ήρ > κλητήρας….    

 

 

 

3. The elements of words

 

Compound words are constituted (formed) by the first (a’) and the second (b’) component, namely by their relative simple words. i.e.: συν-γράφω, παρ-ερμηνεύω, εξ-υπ-ακούγεται.. (As in English: under-standing,..) 

Simple words are constituted by the following elements: ending (derivative and formative), subject (thema), root, epithema, prefix and accent.

 

1. Ending

Ending is called the changeable final part of an inclinable word. The linguistic element of the inclinable word stating what part of speech (noun, adjective, verb…) and what type (gender, number, case or person) is the significant part of the word. I.e. καλ-ός, καλ-οί, καλ-ή, καλ-ό,  τέλ-ος, τελεί-α… (As in English: good & good-s, end > end-ing, end-ed…).

Derivative endings are those by which we create words from other words (from subjects of other words). For instance, the following endings:

-ινός: χθες > χθεσ-ινός,ή,ό, κοντά > κοντινός, μακρά > μακρινός, τώρα > τωρινός..

-(ά)ζω: σχόλια > σχολιάζω,  αγκαλιά > αγκαλιάζω,..

,……………………………

Formative or declination endings are those by which we create words from roots or alternate at end of an inclinable word in order to achieve its formations (gender and case in nouns and adjectives, tenses and persons in verbs). I.e.:

Case ending (in masculine nouns and adjectives):

φόρ-ος, ου,ο,ε   γραφ-ικ-ός,ου,ο,ε, Κώστ-ας,α,α,α, Μανώλ-ης,η,η,η

φόροι,ων,ους,οι γραφ-ικ-οί,ών,ούς,οί, Κωστ-ήδες,ων,ες,ες...

Person endings (in present tense of verbs):

λύν-ω,εις,ει,ουμε,ετε,ουν

λύν-ομαι,εσαι,εται,ομαστε,εστε,ονται = passive voice

 

2. Subject (“thema”) and root

Subject is called the starting and immutable (unchanged) part of an inclinable word that states the main meaning. The initial phthongs (= sounds of words) of the word that remain unchanged in inclination (case subject). I.e.: τακτ-ός, τακτ-ού, τακ-τοί,… or are taken from the word to create another word (derivative subject): τακτ-ικός, τακτ-οποιώ

Double subjective are called those words which are presented having two subjects in composition (synthesis) and derivation (production). I.e.:

γη > γήπεδο, μεσό-γειος, γε-ωργία

καλ-ός,ή,ό > καλό-παιδο, καλλι-γραφία (καλή γραφή)

Nominative: πόλ-η, πολ-ίτης, γάλα > γαλουχώ

Genitive: πόλεως, πολεοδομία, γάλατος, γαλατάς

Root is called the initial subject by whom a series of words or subjects are created (made). I.e.: πόλις or πόλ-η (root and initial subject πολ-) > πολ-ίτ-ης (the subject now is πολιτ-)  >  πολ-ιτικ-ός (the subject now is πολιτικ-) and πολιτικάντ-ης, πολιτεύομαι > πολιτευτ-ής

 

Character is called the final phthong (sound of words) of the subject or of the root: γραφ-ή (Character is φ), γραφικ-ός (Character is κ)…

Epithema is the part of an ending that is put in an ending for certain meaning. I.e.: τακτ-ός > τακτ-(ικ)-ός

 

3. Prefix

Prefix is called the total group of phthongs (sounds of words) which is put before a subject in inclination, like the syllabic augment “e-“ in verbs. For example: λύνω > έ-λυνα, έ-λυσα, φέρνω > έ-φερα..

 

4. Accent

Accent is called a louder pronunciation of a syllable in a word (the accentuation of the voice in a syllable of a word). The accent is for the expansion of the pronunciation (it is difficult to pronounce the same all the syllable of a word) and in Greek language has notional importance. Accent combined with endings (Only in Greek) state what part of speech and sometimes what type is a word. I.e.:

εξοχ-ή, μετοχ-ή, Ξάνθ-η…             (= noun)

έξοχ-η, μέτοχ-η, ξανθ-ή..               (= adjectives)

άδικ-ο, άπορ-ο, άτυχ-ο, ..               (= adjective)

& αδικ-ώ, απορ-ώ, ατυχ-ώ....           (= verb),

έξοχ-ος, κάθετ-ος, υπόγει-ος,....      (= adjective)

&  εξόχ-ως, καθέτ-ως, υπογεί-ως... (= adverb),...

ξεκίνα, περπάτα, αγάπα…               (= imperative)

ξeκινά, περπατά, αγαπά              (= indicative)

 

Accent mark is called the marc (/) by which we indicate the accent syllable (the name given the sign in written speech above the vowel of the stressed accentuated syllable), e.g.: κα-λός, κά-λος,, ά-δικος...

 

In oral speech (in all languages) one syllable of each word is accented, except in words of one syllable, see in:

English: morning, pronounce “ mόrnιnk”,

In Greek: καλη-με-ρα, κα-κός, ά-τυ-χος....

 

In the Greek writing system we always put the accent mark on the stressed vowel letter: κα-λός, νέ-ος.. 

Something that does not occur in writing with Latin characters, see in English: morning (“ μόρνινκ”), America (“Αμέρικα”)...

 

 

4. Phthongs (= the sounds of words) & syllables

 

Syllable is called the smallest (least) piece in which a word can be cut and pronounced in achieving a comfortable acoustic apprehension. I.e: α-έ-ρας, καλ-ός … (In English: mo-ther, En-glish…)

 Phthong (Greek φθόγγος, pronunciation <<fthόnkοs>>) in the Greek writing system is called one of the individual sounds (voices) of the word syllables. Phthongs are called the vowels and consonants, the individual sounds of the syllable in the words, as for example the phtongs of the words:

Greek words: γρά-φω, Ι-τα-λί-α = γ/ρ/ά/φ/ω, Ι/τ/α/λ/ί/α.. 

Latin words: I-ta-li-a, La-ti-um = I-t/a/l/y, L/at/i/u/m... 

 

The total of different phthongs of all languages, ancient or modern, is just twenty (20), the following:

Greek writing: α, ε, ο, ου, ι, μ, ν, λ, ρ, σ, ζ, τ,  δ,   θ,  π, β, φ, κ, γ, χ

Latin writing:  a, e, o, u,  i,  m, n, l, r, s,  z, t,  th, dh, p, v, f,  c, gh, h

 

Important note:

1) Every vowel in a word, alone or combined with a consonant before or alter it makes a syllable, i.e.: ο α-ε-τος, εν, εκ, κε-νός… because the consonants are not possible to be pronounced by themselves (separately); they are always accompanied by a vowel. That is why, in Greek, consonants are called «σύμφωνα = συν-φωνή» > Latin “con-sonors” > English “consonants” (agreeing, harmonized, according) or (along with the sound). I.e.: εν, νέ-ος, τον, ε-γέ-λα-σε..

Consonant syllable is called the syllable in which there is one or more consonant (a syllable containing vowel + consonant or consonants), e.g.: εκ, εν,την, βους, κε-νός..

Vowel syllable is called the syllable in which there is not consonant (a syllable containing a vowel only), e.g.: o α-έ-(ρας), η ω-(ραί)-α..

2) The Greek word <<Συλλαβή>> =  syllable (in English)  is constituted (formed) from the simple words συν-λαβή, from συν-λαμβάνω > συλλαβή = arrest, apprehension.

3) The phthongs, the vowels and consonants, are a conventional distinction, since the smaller part of a word is the syllable and the consonants are always pronounced with a vowel (that is where the words “φωνήεντα = vowels” and “σύμφωνα = consonants” come from).

4) It was the Greeks who first made the distinction between the phthongs, the consonants and the vowels, in a conventional way, because they realized by going so:

a) Fewer symbols of writing are required since the different kinds of phthongs are fewer (20 in number) than the different kinds of syllables (over 600, depending on the language), 

b) Writing becomes more simplified (easier) and etymological, i.e. that we write what we say phonetically and the same time what we mean as a part of the speech and at the form of the word (type: gender, number, case, person..) by using the homophone letters.

5) Phthongs and syllables are not constituent (intellectual, etymogical) elements of words. Those that realize the linguistic expression are the ending, subject, root, prefix, accent in case of simple inclinable words and first and second components in case of a compound word, i.e.: γράφ-ω, συν-γράφ-ω, δια-γραφ-ή... Simply, in many words, certain linguistic elements may be a mere phthong or just one syllable. I.e.: το έν-α, η καλ-ή…In words without constituent elements or declension (inclination) or their total group of phthongs (sounds of words) is also their expressive element: δέκα, άλφα, απέναντι..

 (For more see the book “The Greek writing system”, A. Krassanakis)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2nd 

PARTS OF SPEECH

 

1. Significance and types of parts of speech

 

 Parts of speech are said the types of words of language from opinion of importance and syntax of (operation in the proposal). The parts of speech of Greek language are ten, the following:

the article = ο,η,το (= the)

the noun or substantive: αγάπη, Μαρία, Ευρώπη, παιδί, γάλα… (= the love, Maria, Europe, child, milk…)

the adjective: καλ-ός,ή,ό,  ωραί-ος,α,ο… (= good, beautiful…).

the pronoun: εγώ, εσύ, αυτός,ή,ό… (= I, you, he, she, it, those…)

the verb: αγαπώ, ομιλώ, κλαίω(= i love, i speak,…)

the participle: γραμμένος,η,ο, μαγεμένος,η,ο…

the adverb: κάτω, πάνω, εκεί….( = down, under, there…) 

the preposition: από, μετά, σε, επί… (= from, after, in,…)

the conjunctions: και,  όταν, γιατί…, (= and, when, why..)

the interjection: αμήν!, αχ! ….  (= αmen!, ach!,…)

 

By the ten parts of speech of Greek language, the six: the article, the substantive, the surname, the pronoun, the action and the verb are said declinable, because they are conjugated. That is to say each one of them is presented in the speech with various forms, e.g.: καλ-ός, καλ-ή, καλ-ό, κα-λ-ές, καλ-ώνμαγεμέν-ος, μαγεμέν-ου, άλλ-ος, άλλ-οι

 

Τhe remainder four: the adverb, the intention, the contact and the interjection, are said un-delineated, because in speech each one of them is always presented with the same form, e.g.: εδώ, εκεί, αμάν, και...

 

 

2. Declinable parts of speech

 

 a. What is inclination, types etc

 

Inclination is said the special way with which take shape the falls bending and the years and the persons of verb. The way with which are altered the declinable words in the speech. The inclination becomes in one hand with endings (conclusions, suffices) that are proportional with the part of speech, the gender, the number and the declination cases or the person of other word and in other hand with the locomotion of tone in certain cases or persons, as well as with the addition of the e- in certain tense of verbs, see e.g.: καλ-ός, καλ-ού, καλ-οίτιμ-ώ, τιμ-άς, τιμ-ά, ετίμ-ησα,..

Types of (words) are said the forms that take the declinable words at the syntax (in the speech), the cases of word (and their genders) in the declination and persons in the verbs, consequently the various forms that take the declinable words for individual intelligent differences.

 

b. Cases of declination

 

Cases of declination are said the changes (types, forms) that present or take the article, the noun or substantives, the adjectives, the participle and the pronouns in the speech, from where these are called also declinated parts of speech: Μαρί-α, Μαρί-ας, Μαρί-ες = case of noun, καλ-ός, καλ-ού, καλ-οί... = cases of adjective.

The cases of declination of Greek language are four: the nominative, general, the accusative and the vocative, singular and plural number.

1. The nominative reveals the subject of proposal (= what for is said the proposal), as well as his defendant (= what is said for the subject). The case that him we handled, in order to we answer in the question "what, who, a, + verb of proposal", see e.g.:

_Ο Γιάννης είναι καλός μαθητής. = Yannis (subject) is good student.

_Ο μαθητής πάει στο δωμάτιο. = The student (subject) is going in to the room.

2. General reveals what in it belongs or is reported what for we speak. The case that we handled, when we want to show the owner of somebody, hence answers in the question "name + which of you/us etc), e.g.:

_Το μήλο του Γιάννη = the apple of John

 3. The accusative reveals the object, as well as all the other syntactic terms (place, tense or time, sum etc), if they are declared with declinable word or with syntactic total. Consequently it is the case that we handled, in order to we answer in the questions: "who + verb of proposal" (for the object), "where/when/how/how many/because + verb of proposal" (for the other terms - determinations), see e.g.:

_Γιώργο, η Μαρία κτύπησε τον Αντώνη την Δευτέρα = George, Mary (subject) stroked Antonis (objective) in the Monday.

(When stroked;  = Monday = the time).

_ Εγώ θα πάω με τα πόδια στο σχολείο = I will go with the legs (how I will go; = with the legs = the way, the means) to the school  (where I will go; = to the school = the place).

_ Πάω/πήγα δέκα κιλά πατάτες = I go/it went ten kilos potatoes (I go/it went how many = ten kilos = the quantity.)

 The vocative reveals the one that we dedicate, invite or salute a man/woman etc, as well as the one in which is addressed the proposal (the answer in the question "in who, a you speak"). The case that we handled, when we call somebody or something, e.g.:

_ Εγώ, αγαπητή μου, είπα να φύγουμε αύριο = I, dear, I say him we leave for tomorrow.

_Ναι, Μαρία, πήγα. = Yes, Marry, I went.

 

g. Numbers of declinations

 

The cases of declinations have two numbers, the singular and the plural.

Singular number is said the cases that reveal that important of them is in the number a thing or animal etc... or a total or part of total:

_Ο Γιάννης, η Μαρία = Yannis, Maria.. = a individual,

_Η τάξη, το σχολείο, το Υπουργείο = the order/the school/the Ministry = a total.

_ Το ένα τρίτο = The one third of (1/3) order = 1 part from three

Plural number is said the cases that reveal that important of them is in the number many or all the total that we speak. Regularly the precise number of what we speak is declared with quantitative determination. If we do not put such determination, then is meant the "all," or it means that we speak for many (when we do not put article), see eg: _ You bring books (= many). Bring books (= all concrete).

_Οι κουρείς των Αθηνών = the barbers of Athens (= all of Athens).

_ Οι δέκα κουρείς = the ten barbers that left (= ten)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3rd 

HISTORY OF 

GREEK LANGUAGE

 

 

1. History of Greek Language

 

Greek Language is very old, the oldest in Europe and perhaps in the whole World. Its existence is referred in the 7th Century BC, as historical written monuments have shown (Dipylo inscription), but its roots are hidden in the depths of centuries as the Homeric epics and the Linear writings A and B have witnessed. It is merely not found in each time possessing the same vocabulary, the same morphology, etc., as we can see below.

 

 

2. Periods of Greek Language

 

The language of every people does not follow similar manners of speech from time to time. It presents similarities as well as differences in inflection or in sentence construction of words, etc from place to place as well.

 

Ancient Greek                               Modern (new Greek

Εμπρός εις την θάλασσα.               = Μπροστά  στην θάλασσα.

Σήμερον όλοι εορτάζουν.               = Σήμερα όλοι γιορτάζουν.

Επέρασεν και η Αποκριά.              = Πέρασε και η Αποκριά.

Όλοι κατέβησαν εις τον αιγιαλόν  = Όλοι κατέβηκαν στον γιαλό

Μία χελιδών έαρ ού ποιεί.             = Ένα χελιδόνι δεν φέρνει την άνοιξη.

,.................

 

This is due to the fact that:

1) From time to time sciences and technology change or develop, feeding with new words the vocabulary. Tools and activities were different fifty years ago new tools and new activities to day are called in different names.

2) The language is differentiated continuously in order to be simpler and more precis in expression.

 

Roughly, the Greek language is divided in three long periods: The ancient (up to 300 A.D.), the Medieval (300 – 1453 A.D.) and the modern (recent) period (1453 A.D. – today). Analytically in the following:

 

1) First period, archaic

 

It’s the period from very old times until the Persian wars (490 BC)

 

PELASGEAN TIMES = PRE MINOAN TIMES

(Pelasgean nation was the ancestry – descent of Greeks)

 

MINOAN TIMES, from 1500 BC until 1200 BC

(According to Thucydides (A, 3-6), Minoas was the first king that turned away the barbarians from Greek sea and from Greek islands and he was the cause to create after the Greece. According to Homer and Herodotus Minoas was king of island Crete and of most Greek islands three generations before Trojan war.) 

 An indication of what about was the kind of language in the Minoan times cab be found of language in decoding by M. Ventris and J. Chadwich of the tablets written in the Linear writing B’, where one is able to realize the little differentiation of the next period.

Words from Linear writing B’: pome (ποιμήν), patter (πατήρ), meri (μέρη, μέλη), doelos (δούλος), jero (ιερό)....

 

MYCENAEAN TIMES from 1200 BC until 500 BC

From Trojan War until the Persian wars

 

This is the period of the ancient dialects: Ionic, Doric and Aeolic. A precise indication of how the language of that time can be found in the literary works of Homer, Residues, Tyrtaeos, Simonides, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and other prose and rhyme writers.

 

Dipylos tablet, 8th – 7th century BC

ΗΟS NYN ORXESTΟΝ ΠΑΝΤΟΝ ΑΤΑLOTATA..........

 From 1300 BC tile 750 BC (Dipylos inscription) the replacement of the Lenear Writing B’ with the Writing system of our days places.

 

Attician inscription of 5th century BC.

ΕΔΟΧΣΕΝ Ε ΒΟΛΕΙ ΚΑΙ ΤΟ ΔΕΜΟΙ....

 

Spartian dialect: Αμές δ`ε γ' εσόμεθα πολλ~ω κάρρονες

 

Tyrtaios  (685 - 667 BC):

Τεθνάμμενας γ`αρ καλόν ενί προμάχοισι πεσόντα

ανδρ'  αγαθόν περί  η πατρίδι μαρνάμενον

τ`ην δ' αυτού προλιπόντα κα`ι πίονας αγρούς

πτωχεύειν πάντων εστ' ανιηρότατον.... (Υποθήκη)

 

Homer (8/7ος century B.C.):

Μήνιν αειδε, Θε~α, Πηληιάδε?ω Αχιλλ~ηος..

 

If we check the forty words of the first Homeric poetical lines, we can realise that to day eleven (11) words are similarly spoken: θεά, ηρώων, αυτούς, και, το, τα, η, ο βουλή, πολλά, εξ, πρώτα... fourteen (14) words obtained an small phthongic differentiation in their endings (therefore inclination): ψυχάς > ψυχές. Αχιλλεύς > Αχιλλέας, μήνις > μανία, διαστήτη > διάσταση, άλγεαάλγη.... and the rest can be found as base (theme) for other words.

 

 

2) Second period, the Classical

 

The period from the Persian wars to the end of 4th century BC (490 – 300 BC), which is called Classical. Sparta and Athens was the most power full towns but Athens was the centre of the letters and arts.

A precise indication for the condition of the language in that period can be found in the works of Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, Lyssias, Aeschinis, Aristotle and other prose and rhyme writers of that time.

 

<< άρχεται dε πόλεμος ενθέδε ήδη Αθηναίων και Πελοπονησίων και των εκατέροις ξυμμάχων...>> (Thucydides “Plataica B 1 – 6)

 

In the 4th century BC, after the victories (and the splendour) against Persians, common alphabet and writing are established for all Greeks as well as a common name (the name “Hellenes”).

By the victories of Alexander the Great the Greek language of that period become the international language of the era especially in the Hellenized areas of the east (Syria, Persia, Egypt, etc).

 

 

3) Third period, the Alexandrine

 

The period from the times of Alexander’s successors (from the Hellenistic times) to the times of the emperor Octavian Augustus (300 – 30 BC), which is called Alexandrine because the centre of the Greek language (of letters and arts) has been transferred in Alexandria, Egypt.

A precise indication for the condition of the language in that period can be found in the works of Theoctitos, Dhiodhotos os Sicily, Apollonius of Rhodes, even in the works of the Apostles.

<<Και εκδύσαντες αυτόν περιέθηκαν χλαμύδα κοκκίνην>> (Evangelist)

 

4) Fourth period, the Latin

 

The period from the times of the emperor Octavian Augustus to the times of Justinian (30 BC – 527 AD). In the beginning of the 4th century AD Constantinople becomes the center of the Greek language. However the Greek language is not the official in the eastern Roman Empire. Latin remains the official language until 527 AD. Many words of the Greek language in that period are substituted by Roman (Latin) words which in their majority are been maintained up to this, such as: κάστρο, φρατζόλα, κελί, σπίτι, μπαρμπέρης...

 

5) The fifty period, the Byzantine

 

The period from the times Justinian’s times to the Capture of Constantinople (528 – 1453 AD), which is called the Byzantine period, because the center of the Greek language (of the Greek letters and arts) has been the Byzantio (= the Constantinople).

 

6) Sixth period, the Turkish period

 

The period from the times of the Capture of Constantinople (from Turkish) and later from Venetian to the Greek revolution (1453 – 1821 AD).

Many words of the conquerors have been maintained up to this day

Turkish words: μπογιατζής (boyatzi), χασάπης (kasap), χούι, χαράτσι...

Venetian words: μπουκάλα, φρατζόλα, μποτίλια...

 

7) Seventh period, the New Greek

 

From the Greek revolution of 1821 until nowadays. This is the period of the New Greek, the pure (“Katharevussa”) and the popular (“demotic”) Greek language.

 

 

a.      Atticism

 

During the Roman Era, when the Greek language was still international (circa the end of the 1st Century AD), some Greek writers, bookish mans, literary mans etc, appeared, who did not write in their contemporary language, but in the Attic authors’ language of the Classical Era. They were urged in this activity not only by their trust to the superiority (the high standards) of the Attic dialect but also by their perception whey realized that the Greek Language of their times had been invaded occupied by barbarisms (foreign words, idiom etc.) because of ignorance or degeneration, 50 it should not be immortalized.  This movement was called Atticism and the authors, who estimated the Attic dialect as their ideal language, Atticists, As a right usage criterion was estimated the localization of a word or a type in the texts of the Attic writers of the 5th and the 4th Century BC, not the fact that this word or this type were useless in the language of their times.    

As a result of Atticism was the creation of bilinguality which means the usage of two different linguistic forms: The one (the old – fashioned) mainly in the written speech and the other (the popular) mainly in the oral speech. The bilinguality occurred till 1976 when Demotic (the popular) was established officially.

The most significant Atticists were Dionisysius of Alicarnassus, Lucian, Plutarch and Arian.

 

b.      Katharevousa (= “Pure Language”)

 

Katharevousa (language) was the language that appeared for first time in the years of the Turkish Occupation as a compromising solution between the Byzantine Atticism and the spoken language.

Katharevousa, the “pure” language, some times was found to be closer to the ancient Greek Language (then it was called αρχαΐζουσα or άκρατος = strict pure language) and some times closer to the Modern Greek Language (then it was called simplified or simple pure language).

The Katharevousians, like the Atticists, started from the perception that the spoken language of their times was barbaric and rude, full of idioms and morphologically dissimilar (many foreign words, many idioms, many different – Greek or foreign – endings, etc). Thus, it was unable to express arts and sciences in a simple and clear way. Because of this condition, their main aim was the complete hellenization of the vocabulary, a plan that was fulfilled finally in a great extent. Some foreign words, which were transformed into Greek, were the following.

From Italian: γαζέτα, σπετσαρία, ρετσέτα, μπαρμπέρης

Into Greek: εφημερίδα, φαρμακείο, συνταγή, κουρέας

From Turkish: αμανάτι, μεϊντάνι, νταμάρι, πεχλιβάνης, τεμπεσίρι, τζαμπάζης

Into Greek: ενέχυρο, αγορά, λατομείο, παλαιστής, κιμωλία, ζωέμπορος.

 

c. Demotic

 

Demotic is the language all Greeks speak today. It is named so because it is used by all demotes (c i t i z e n s ) , it is (p a n) demotic (p u b l i c) in contrast to Katharevousa which was not public and popular.

 

Linguistic matter

 

Linguistic Matter was “the existing quarrel until 1976 between the oral language of the public and the official written language”. By the appearance of Atticism during the Roman times, the bilinguality of the Greek Language obtained the starting point for instance, while others were used to say «η τάξη, της τάξης, οι τάξεις, ψάρι, κυβέρνηση, κήρυκας, κρεοπώλης» others were used to say «η τάξις, τση τάξης, ιχθύς, ελαιόλαδο, κυβέρνησις, τελάλης, χασάπης” and other were used to say «η τάξις, της τάξεως, αι τάξεις, οψάριον, έλαιον, γκουβέρνο» according to the descent and the education of everyone.

Because of this situation a justified movement started about the “arrangement” of the language by the men of letters (journalists, authors, poets). However, they could not find an agreement about how this wish would become a reality. This difficulty brought a war of arguments between the Katharevousians (who strove for the return of the ancient Greek Language and especially that one of Attica in the 5th Century BC) and the Demoticistes (who proffered the modern Greek Language).

Katharevousians: L.Photiades, A.Grazi, N.Doukas, N.Theotokis, P. Kodrikas, P. Soutsos, K.Kondos, and others.

Demoticistes: Rigas Pheraeos, G.Kostandas, D.Philippides, I. Vilaras, A. Christopoulos, D. Solomos, D. Vernadakis, I. Psicharis, M. Triantaphilides, and others.

Adamantios Corais was standing between the two opinions.

Finally, politics inserted/ intervened! The conservatives, moved by the ideal ancient Greek standards, demanded the return of the ancient Greek Language in the Attic way, while the leftists reacted, because they considered it an utopia or something very difficult to come true. They preferred the Greek Language in the condition formed by the time and the circumstances. The conservatives won in this conflict and the respective education started to be applied in schools. Until the establishment of the desirable language, the Greek were used to speak the modern Greek language almost like to day and write the schools official documents in a language closer to the ancient dialect of Attica. For instance, while the Greeks were speaking «η Αθήνα, η τάξη» their written way should be «αι Αθήναι, η τάξις». This style of writing was called Katharevousa by the archaists because it demanded Greek words only, so that to be a purely Greek language therefore mentally clear.

 

However, the desirable return of the ancient Greek Language was proved unattainable and that was an expected conclusion because:

1) On the one hand students in schools were taught the ancient Attic dialect deficiently; on the other hand the local dialect (Cretan, Vlachian…) or a language similar to the Greek Demotic Language nowadays was in daily usage at home and work.

2) The language is living organism that is developed, enriched, improved continuously. Therefore, nothing can bring it backwards-to a previous day.

a) The changes in form and in inclination of certain groups of words did not occur accidentally but similarly to other change, for practical reasons. I.e. (simplification) nouns ending in –is: τάξις, πράξις… were transformed into nouns ending in –η in order to obtain the same inclination with nouns ending in – η: πηγή, νίκη

b)      Many words were changed by time phonologically for euphony or meaning differentiation. For instance: χώρα  (geographical) and χώρα  > ώρα (time), γράφμα > γράμμα (more euphony), συνμαθητής > συμμαθητής (more euphony)…

c)      Many words meaning old times men’s professions became words of two genders. i.e. o γιατρός > η γιατρός (masculine) or γιατρίνα (feminine),  ο έμπορος > ο, η έμπορος or  o  έμπορας (masculine) and η εμπόρισσα (feminine)….

 

Αs a result, the oral or written speech in school was different compared to the oral or written speech at home or at work. (For example, in school compositions students were writing  « α ι   μ η τ έ ρ α ι, ε ι ς   τ α ς  Α θ ή ν α ς» however, at home they were saying «ο ι  μ α ν ά δ ε ς, σ τ η ν  Α θ ή ν α». Τhe consequences for many students were the linguistic confusion or the school a- version.

Facing this problem, a conservative government under the leadership of Constantine Karamanlis, despite of the fact that in older times the conservatives fought the establishment of the Demotic language, in 1976 established unconstrained (unforcedly) the Contemporary Greek or Demotic Language a long with the linguistic standards (vocabulary and inclination) referred in the book «Νέ ο ε λ λ η ν ι κ ή  Γ ρ α μ μ α τ ι κ ή» (Modern Greek Grammar Ο.Α.Ε.Δ  Publication, Athens 1976).

The “one accent” system was established in 1982 by the socialist government under the leadership of Andreas Papandreou. Its establishment took place to make the Greek writing easier. Nevertheless, in was also a demand of Computer users because 20 Computers of that generation did not contain any plectrum for accents or signals. The reason was the lack of signs in the Latin alphabet (the aspiration marks, the accents and the solvent marks).

A significant role in the formation of the modern style of the contemporary Greek Language haw been played the linguist M. Triantaphillides (“Grammar of the Demotic Greek Language”) as well as by many journalists and authors of our times.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 4th 

Differences between

Greek and other languages

 

1. Characteristics & principles of the Greek language

 

The Greek language compared to another language presents proportional similarities and differences. In a general view and in relation to the other languages, it disposes the following elements, which make the Greek language separate and expressive in a high level potentiality:

(1) It possesses an infinite productive ability, unique in the whole word (in all a round the world), because its words are farmed by combinations of mentalinguistic elements like a root or a theme + an ending, etc., not by a periphrasis that other languages (Chinese, Japanese, English, etc.) follow. From a root or a theme a lot of words can by formed. I.e.:

Simple words: γράφ-ω,  γραφ-ή, γραφ-ικ-ός, γραφ-έας

Compound words: δια-γράφω, συν-γραφέας > συγγραφέας….

 (2) Its endings, typological and productive, are not accidental but proportionate, with the part of speech and the type (gender, number, case, or person), therefore they have an order. For instance, verbs, endings in –ω,εις,ει: αδικ-ώ, αδικ-είς, αδικ-εί.. and adjectives, endings  inos,η,ό: καλ-ός, καλ-ή, καλ-ό, …

(3) It contains many words (a very rich vocabulary), the greatest collection in comparison to other languages due on the one hand to its long linguistic history and on the hand to its expressive manner, in the Greek Language, every meaning is expressed by its own word. In other languages, many words have many different meanings in a way we meet in Greek as well. I.e.  χ ρ υ σ ή = the adjective, χ ρ υ σ ή = the disease, etc. Or, many meanings are given in a periphrastic way, the same way we see in Greek, as well. I.e. παιδάκιμικρό παιδί, Ηλιούπολη = Ηλίου πόλη

(4) Its words, simple and compound, are usually polysyllabic (two syllables and more) thanks to the endings; as a result, they are comprehensive as well as easy in pronunciation: καλημέρα, Γιώργος

Monosyllabic words are only certain types of the article and some undeclinable words.

(5) Its words did not have combinations of phthongs difficult in pronunciation.

The Greek words have been developed syllabically and all phthongs contain a similar intensity in pronunciation unless there is an accented syllable: κ α  - λ ό ς, κ αλ ημ έρ α.

They syllables of the Greek words are either a vowel alone or a vowel and a consonant together: οι α-ε-τοί, εκ, το… two or three consonants are together only whether the first or the third is semivowel (μ, ν, λ, ρ, σ, ζ): έ-γρα-ψα, Στα-θης, ά-ρτος, ά-ρθρο.

In this case, the pronunciation is more simple and comfortable. The combinations νρ, νλ, νμ, να, νζ, πμ, βμ, φμ, receive rejection or assimilation:  σ υ νρ ά π τ ω >  σ υ ρ ρ ά π τ ω, έ ν λ ο γ ο ς > έ λ λ ο γ ο ς, γ ρ ά φ μ α > γ ρ ά μ μ α, σ ύ (ν) ζ υ γ ο ς.

(6) It has three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and three different articles (ο, η, το): ο  π α τ έ ρ α ς, η  μ ά ν α, τ ο  π α ι δ ί.    

(7) The verb, according to its ending, reveals its subject as a person of speech (whether the subject is the speaker, the listener (auditor) or a third person) as well as the voice (active or passive) : λύ νω, meaning  λ, the speaker = subject , λ ύ νε ι ς meaning you, the listener = subject, λ ύ νει meaning he, she, it = the third = subject, λ ύ νω = action and λ ύ ν - ο μ α ι   = passion.

(8) Its words are, in their majority, declinable (The exclamations, the prepositions, the conjunctions and the adverbs are not declinable.) and each of the syntactical parts of a sentence (subject, object, predicate) has a certain case to report (The subject in Nominative, the object in Accusative…) so that they can remain distinct when they are mixed up. I.e:

(Ε γ ώ) + α γ α π ώ + τ η ν  Μ α ρ ί α + δ ύ ο  χ ρ ό ν ι α

= Α γ α π ώ + ε γ ώ + τ η ν  Μ α ρ ί α + δ ύ ο  χ ρ ό ν ι α

= Ε γ ώ + τ η ν  Μ α ρ ί α + δ ύ ο  χ ρ ό ν ι α + α γ α π ώ

= Δ ύ ο  χ ρ ό ν ι α + α γ α π ώ + τ η ν  Μ α ρ ί α + ε γ ώ .     

(9) Ιts parts of speech are formed by certain endings, therefore there is no need of any special syntax to show what part of speech is a word in a sentence. This does not occur in a lot of other languages such as English, Russian, etc. because there a name or a pronoun + a word = a verb, as well as an article + a word = a noun: Nick loves, I love, the love (Ο Νίκος αγαπάει, αγαπώ, η αγάπη).

(10) It possesses many syntactical formations (syntax ways):

Το τραίνο οδηγείται από τον Γιώργο (Passive Syntax)

= Ο Γιώργος οδηγεί το τραίνο (Active Syntax)

= Ο Γιώργος είναι οδηγός του τραίνου (Attributive Syntax).

(11) The accents of its words (combined with the endings) indicate the parts of speech or the types of the words: λάβει, γράφει, έξοχ-η, συμμέτοχ-η, = λαβ-ή, γραφ-ή, εξοχ-ή, συμμετοχ-ή. Here, the accented syllable of the words is not any syllable or the final syllable or the penult syllable for the all the words, as it is met in other languages, but that syllable which is fixed by the meaning or by the part of speech or by its type. For example, if the adjectives are accented on the antepenult syllable, the nouns are accented on the final syllable of the penult syllable:

συμμέτοχη, ανάγωγη, παράγωγη,- άξια, άγια = adjectives.

Συμμετοχή, αναγωγή, παραγωγή – αξία, αγία  = nouns.

 

On the other hand, in the other languages:

(a) There is no strong productive ability because the words and their types are formed mainly in a periphrastic way (as it can be seen in English: I love, he loves, the love) and not by using the linguistic elements root or subject + ending, etc.

(b) The words are not articulated with the mentalinguistic elements prefix + subject + ending, at least in the rich way and the good arrangement of the Greek Language. 

(c) The accent (in languages that present polysyllabic words) is only the concretization and the expansion of pronunciation; this occurs on some accidental syllable, on the final syllable (in French), on the penult or the antepenult syllable (in English).

Despite its existence, the accent is not noted in the writing because there is nothing more to present as it happens in the Greek Language. I.e. (English) morning (μόρνιγκ), fire (φάϊαρ), Μary (Mέρι).

 

Especially:

(1) Chinese Language is the opposite of Greek Language. There are no endings in Chinese, therefore no inclination and no polysyllabic words. The Chinese words are monosyllabic (the compound words have two syllables): “tsim” = gold, “pe” = cup, “tsim pe” = the golden cup.

In the Chinese Language every gender usualy passesses its own words. For example, her there is no “Anthony” and “Antonia”

(2) English Language does not possess inclination endings, by almost any means (i.e.: good = καλός, ή, ό, καλοί, καλών, καλές, καλώς) therefore there are only least inclinations and words with few syllables: go, go ou, go up, go down. The English Language possesses (solely) productive words: lov – ability, lov-able, lov-ableness, lov-ably, love-less, love-ly, lov-er, lov-ing,

As it is in Greek Language, the genders here are also three, however the article is one or similar for the three genders, the article “the”. The word gender is rarely distinguished through an ending (some feminine words have the ending -ess). Usually in English every gender

Contains its own special words, no common words that can change the gender, like in Greek, by just adding the proportionate ending.

The actor (o ηθοποιός) – the actress (η ηθοποιός)

The poet  (o ποιητής) – the poetess (η ποιήτρια)

The boy  (το αγόρι) - the girl (το κορίτσι)

 

In English Language, many words belong in many parts of speech or types, like.

The article the + word = noun: the love = η αγάπη

Τhe article the + word with – s” = plural of noun: the loves = οι αγάπες

The word of + word = genitive: of love = της αγάπης

Name or pronouns + word = verb: I love = αγαπώ,  Mary loves =  η Μαρία αγαπά

Word + word = adjective + nun: love affair = Ερωτική σχέση, love letter = ερωτικό γράμμα

The English word verb, without endings, does not reveal which of the parts of speech (speaker, listener, or a third person) is its subject (= the person that acts or receives the stated act). In order to reveal this we put before the verb some pronoun or other words. It is the reason that these are not omitted in the English Language or certain terms are put together like, for instance, subject + verb:

I love      = (εγώ) αγαπώ = verb, [a’ person, the speaker]

You love = (εσύ) αγαπάς = verb  [b’ person = the listener]

He loves  = (αυτός) αγαπά = c’ person, the person they are talking about

She loves = (αυτή) αγαπά = c’ person, the person they are talking about

 Mary loves = (Η Μαρία) αγαπά = c’ person, a concrete person

 The love     = (η) αγάπη = noun in Nominative

 Of the love = (της) αγάπης = noun in Genitive

(3) Latin Language is similar in many elements to Greek Language. Its words are articulated in Greek way, it possesses three genders, endings and inclinations, however not according to the orders the extension and the variety of the Greek Language: am – o, am – as, am – at, magnus, - a, - um.

(4) Italian Language is a very faithful follower of Latin Language in many elements. It does not possess the neuter gender. So as a consequence, the gender of its words sometimes is similar and sometimes is not similar to the gender of the same words in Greek and Latin language, see for example:

 

Latin                                              Greek

il padre                                    = ο πατέρας, same gender

la madre                                  = η μητέρα, same gender

il bastone (masculine gender)       = η μπαστούνα (female gender)

la carta  (female gender)             =  ο χάρτης (masculine gender)

il libro (masculine  gender)           = το βιβλίο  (neuter gender)

il ragazo = ο νεαρός  & το αγόρι,

la ragaza = η νεαρά & το κορίτσι.

(For further information’s see the book: “Scientific Linguistics” by A. Krassanakis.)

 

 

2. The wealth, the expressive ability and the universal contribution of Greek Language

 

Greek Language is one of the richest and most expressive languages of world (mankind).

 

Greek language presents a high expressive ability, because:

(a) Contains many syntax formations of speech [active and passive voice, declaration (opinion) and situation (condition) etc.]: O Μανώλης κτυπά τον Νίκο = Ο Νίκος κτυπιέται από τον Μανώλη, Γνωρίζω το θέμα = Είμαι γνώστης του θέματος.

(b) Disposes a word for each meaning.

(c) Its words speak according to their contained elements (subject + root + ending, accent): γραφέας, γράφω, γράφικός, - ή, -ό. 

 

Greek Language is very rich because:

1) It presents a productive ability; it is able to create a word for any differentiation of a meaning very easily: γραφ-έας, γραφι-ικός, γράμμα.

2) It has inherited the vocabulary of the ancient Greek Language. The Contemporary or Demotic Greek Language is a young language in age, since it was consecrated officially in 1976. However, as a follower of the ancient Greek Language, it has inherited the whole collection of the ancient Greek words as well as the syntax formations of speech, adding its own creations in order to cover needs and deficiencies, which have emerged in the meanwhile by either the impetuous rise of arts, sciences, athletism (therefore a need of naming various new goods and terms) or the substitution of foreign words (linguistic loans) imposed by the Roman and the Turkish Occupation. As a consequence, the contemporary or Demotic Greek language is much richer than any other language, even the ancient Greek Language. It is very wealthy of its large heritage, however there is an important detail in the comparison with the ancient language. For the reasons seen above, the Demotic Greek Language contains more linguistic loans. The ancient Greek Language, as a language of a people very progressive in its times, exported words and seldom imported (exported and rarely imported words).

Greek Language contains word derived not only from all over the New World but also from all over the Ancient World. The Greeks, being present and writing down continuously since very old times, registered and saved a vast quantity of words of the Antiquity. They use words (linguistic leans) of peoples who are lost (Pelasgians, Carians, Phoenicians) as well as words of peoples who once did not know writing (Slavs, Russians and others). Thus, the Greek Language is a universal linguistic treasury.

The contribution of Greek Language to other languages is not merely great, but vast; because it offered plenty of words to them thanks to its high productive ability. The word structure of the Greek language is composed by concrete linguistic elements: root or subject + ending (simple and productive) + accent, as seen above. Thus, for every meaning, concrete or abstract, visible or invisible, there is possibility of creating a separate word through a combination of these linguistic elements; a result that is multiplied by a synthesis as well as by a transfer of the accent from syllable to syllable.

See for example:

Simple words: γραφ – ή, γραφ – ικός, - ή, - ό  γραφ – είον, γραφ έας,, γράφ – μα ] γράμμα,  γραμμ – ατικός, -ή, γραμμ – άριο,  γραμμ – ατέας, γραμμ – ή, γραμμ – ικός, -ή, - ό.

Compound words: ά – γραφ – ος, - η, - ο, συ (ν) – γγραφ – έας,   από – γραφ – έας, δια – γράφω, ανα – γράφω,  παρ – άγω ] παρ – άγωγος, -η, -ο,   παραγωγ – ός, -ή

 Accent production: παράγωγος – παραγωγός,   παράγωγη – παραγωγή…

 

 The above phenomenon is not met in other languages except Latin in a lower, however, degree.

This is mainly the reason that foreign people have recourse to the Greek or the Latin Language for word loans or make words with Greek linguistic elements like, for instance: telephone – τηλέφωνο, (τηλε + φων-ή), prototype – πρωτοτυπία (πρώτος + τύπος).

 

It is Noted that:

(1) The Greek language is the language in which the greatest religious of the world the religion of the Olympian Gods and the religion of the New Testament (the Christian religion) have been recorded.

(2) In the times of Alexander the Great and Christ the Greek language was the international language.

Most of the apostles: Paul, John, Luke, etc. as well as other Hebrews had obtained Greek education an the knowledge of the Greek Language and writing; the Gospels were written in Greek.

The Greek writing helped most of the ancient writing systems to be decoded. Because of the time that the Greek Language was international, many tablets then had been written in two languages; I.e. Rozetta’s pillar written in Egyptian and in Greek, the Rabad’s inscription of Alep in Greek, in Syrian an in Arabic, the Aran’s inscription of Aouran in Greek an in Arabic.

(3) The Greeks, discovering first the alphabetic writing system and obtaining the possibility to shore their experiences in a comfortable and correct way, became first in arts and sciences: Homer, Hesiod, Plato, Heraclitus, Aristotle, Euripides, Aescylus, Democritos. As a result, the Greek Language became the expressive language of the human mind in the first great moments of its creation as well as the matrix of the other languages. Since the foreigners imitate the Greek writing and translate ancient Greek scientific words into their languages, the consequence is the transfer of Greek words in their languages, like in English: Xριστός (Christ), Ολυμπία (Olympia), αλφάβητο (alphabet), Γεωργία (Georgia), Ιστορία (History), Γεωγραφία (Geography).

The international Greek words are countless.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 5th 

EDUCATIONAL

 

1. Difficulties of learning the Greek Language.

 

For many foreigners the Greek language is very difficult to learn. It is said that learning lasts over twenty – five years (“ATHENS NEWS”, July 1997, “Learn Greek in twenty-five years”) because the Greek Language:

(a) Contains a lot of endings, inclined and productive (words in – μενος, -ικός, - ινός…) therefore difficult inclinations and production, therefore time as well as mind are demanded to learn this languages.

(b) Contains a lot of long words (polysyllable); plenty of time periods are necessary to learn the pronunciation of each word.

(c) Contains three articles (English one, the “the”) and three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) instead of two (masculine and feminine) which are the normal; therefore, they say, it is difficult to know when somebody tells i.e. «το κλαδί» and when “o κλάδος».

(d) Presents a difficult dictation in writing; they say that they have to memorize these words written with –o and those words written with –ω, these words with –ε and those words with –αι, these words with – η and those words with – ι or – υ, etc.

 

However, these above are somehow wrong because:

1. Although it is true that the Greek Language contains many endings, inclined and productive, meaning difficult inclination and production, however, the other languages face a similar difficulty in syntax: The difficulty in learning how words should be put in a sentence in order to derive the wishing meaning, since a word without an ending represents a general meaning which can become specific any combined with other words like in English. I.e.:

I love (pronoun + word = verb)= Greek αγαπώ,

the love (article + word = noun) = Greek αγάπη,

As well as: go on, go up, go down.

2.  Although it is true that the Greek Language contains many words, innumerous words, however in a wonderful surprise they were not created by accident, but by certain endings (masculine, feminine, neuter) and concrete subjects (i.e. γραφ - > γράφω, γραφή, γραφέας, γραφικός). Therefore, it is easy to learn them as well as to find their part of speech and meaning etymologically, analyzing them into their components. For – example: Νίκος, Μάνος, Κόκκινος _ masculine noun, Νίκη, Ανοιξη, εξοχή = feminine noun, νικώ, γράφω, = verbs in active voice, νικημένος, γραφ-μένος }γραμμένος = participles in passive voice, δραματ-ικός = adjectives, “he who contains a drama”, dramatic. Τhe above linguistic characteristics are not valid in other languages (except little in Latin), because the vocabulary of the other language has been created by word loans (for example, in the English vocabulary there are words from the Greek Language, the Latin Language, etc.) or indeclinable words of general meaning which are specified conceptionally depending on their position in a sentence (For example, in the Chinese Language a word can have up to a hundred meanings).

3.  The Greek words, indeed, have the articles and proportionate gender endings (o Νίκος and η Νίκη, το παιδί, and η μητέρα and ο πατέρας) which are not presented in the words of other languages (The English language contains relatively a few endings an one article, “the”, for all three genders. The Chinese Language disposes neither articles nor endings but, simply, certain words for every gender). However, articles and endings are not put at the words accidentally but according to their meanings’ part of speech and gender, therefore something easy to be found out. I.e. o Νίκος (masculine article and masculine ending if we mean a masculine), η Νίκη (feminine article and feminine ending if we mean a feminine), το παιδί (neuter article and neuter ending if we mean a neuter).   In other languages, instead of saying, for example, “Αντώνης και Αντωνία», we say «ο ΄Αντον και η Αντοn» changing only the article or we say  “the man Αντον and the woman Aντοn”. (About cases in the Greek Language of putting masculine, feminine or neuter article – ending, see the intimate chapters).

4. The Greek writing – dictation is not succeeded by memorizing which word is written i.e. with «ω» or « ο», which word with «ι» or «η», etc. but by following respective rules such as:

 the verbs are written with « ω »,

 the words having cases with « ο » or « η » (plural – οι), etc. 

 

For instance, σήκω, φοιτώ, καλώ, καλεί, καλείς……, and σύκο, φυτό, καλό, καλή, καλής…

(For more information, see “The Greek Writing System” by A. Krassanakis).

 

 

2. How to speak correct New Greek

 

 In order to speak the Greek language correctly we have to obtain an adequate knowledge of:

1) Its vocabulary (Reading many texts of Greek authors enriches the vocabulary. A good lexicon is helpful for the unknown words.

2) Its parts of speech (See in other chapters of the present book).

3) Its formation (the endings and the inclination of the declinable words (See in other Chapters of the present book)

4) Its syntax and especially the parts of speech very well: how to familiar persons, how to speak officially, and so on. (See the books “The Greek Writing System” and “Literature Lessons” by A.Krasanakis).

5) The similarities and the differences between the Modern and the Ancient Greek Language as well as in every local dialect; which words belong to the Ancient Greek Language and which words to the Modern Greek Language; which endings belong to the Ancient Language and which endings to the Modern Greek language, etc.

(For more information see below.)

 

 a) The Vocabulary of the Contemporary Greek Language 

 

The Modern Greek Language (Demotic) saves or restores (re establishes) all the ancient words of all dialects of the Greek people, whenever and wherever they have been made, although some these ancient words must be stated their new shape (ending, subject, and inclination) and according the their meaning.

Ancient Greek: Αθήναι, τάξις, αψίς, αυλός, παις – παιδίον, πόλις, πατήρ, λέω..

Modern Greek: Αθήνα, τάξη, αψίδα, αυλός, παιδί, πόλη, πατέρας, λέγω….

 

See: Αγαθός = “ο καλός” (= good) in ancient Greek and “ο ανόητος, ο απονήρευτος” (= foolish or artless, unsophisticated, guileless) in modern, New Greek,

 

b) The Differences between the Ancient and the Modern Greek Language

 

1. Many words of the Ancient Greek Language are not used today: αφικνούμαι (but άφιξη is used), ελαύνω (but έλευση, προσέλευση, etc are used), ιχθύς, (but ιχθυοπωλείο is used); in their place other word have been established. I.e. ψάλλω (instead of άδω), το ψάρι (instead of ο ιχθύς).

2. Some words of the Ancient Greek Language are used today having another (metaphorical) meaning. I.e. στέργω (= “I love” in Ancient Greek and “I consent” in Modern Greek), άλογο (= “middles” in Ancient Greek and “horse” in Modern Greek).

3. The Modern Greek language possesses:

a. A similar syntax structure to the syntax structure of the Ancient Greek Language (In the modern Greek a sentence is also constructed by terms (specific syntax combinations: subject, predicate, object) of which the cases are depended on the term or the part of speech they refer]; however the syntax today is more simple after the abolition of the dual, the dative case, the optative mood and the infinitive.

b. Similar phthongs to the phthongs of the ancient Greek Language, α,β,ο,ου,ι,μ,ν,λ,ρ,σ,ζ,π,β,φ,τ,δ,θ,κ,γ,χ however, the phthongical compositions of many words today have been changed for easy speaking reasons (for a more simple and easier pronunciation) or for reasons of meaning differentiation. I.e. χώρα, (place) and (x)ώρα > ώρα (time), γρά(φ)μα > γράμμα, (ε)κδύω > γδύνω, κόνις> (σ)κόνη, πυρεία > (σ)πύρ(τ)α, έλαιον > λάδι, παιδί(ον), φορείο (ν), λύσι(ς) > λύση.

c. A similar syntax construction of the words to the syntax construction of the ancient Greek Language (the words of the Modern Greek Language are constituted by the elements: subject + ending + accent, which depend on the part of speech and the type of the word. For instance, καλός and  - κάλος, εξέχω > έξοχη and έξοχή) ; however, some endings in the ancient Greek Language have been abolished and some endings have been counterfeited for the simplification of the language. E x a m p l e s:

By abstracting the – s in feminine nouns: πράξι(ς) > πράξη, λύσι(ς) > λύση...

By abstracting the –(o)ν in neuter nouns: παιδί(ον), φορείο(ν), κουρείο(ν)…

By adding the endings –οτητα and – αδα instead of the endings in Ancient Greek –οτης and – ας: οντότης > οντότητα, μητρότης > μητρότητα, πεδιάς > πεδιάδα, Ελλάς > Ελλάδα

d. A similar inclination way to the inclination way of the ancient Greek Language which is the inclination of words by adding and abstracting specific endings; however, the modern Greek language has different typological endings in many words: μητρότης > μητρότητα, αγελάς > αγελάδα, πράξις > πράξη. In inclination the declined words, the vowel of the their endings usually remains the same except in the Genitive of the Plural Number: καλή,ής,ή & καλές,ών,ές

Ancient Greek: η τράπεζα, τραπέζης, ο λοχίας, του λοχίου,…

Modern Greek: η τράπεζα, τράπεζας, ο λοχίας, του λοχία,…

4. The Modern Greek Language has:

(a) One cases less: there is no dative case: «τω νεανία, τοις  νεανίαις, τω τιμημένω νεκρώ, τοις τιμημένοις νεκροίς».

(b) Abolished the dual in the declinable nouns: τω οφθαλμώ (the two eyes), τω πόδε, (the two feet),  τω χείρε, (the two hands), τω Διοσκούρε (Castor and Pollux).

(c) One mood less: there is no optative mood:  «λύοιμο, λύοις, λύσοιμι, λύσοις».

(d) Abolished the infinitive ending in –ειν (it is substituted by derivatives ending in –(η)μα): «το καπνίζειν, ομιλείν, απαγορεύεται, το καπνίζειν / ομιλείν > το κάπνισμα / μίλημα».

(e) Abolished the reduplication: (re) θωρακισμένος > θωρακισμένος, λέλυκα, ελελύκειν = έχω λύσει, είχα λύσει.

(f) Abolished the participles ending in – εις, - σας, - ων : λύθεις, λύσας, λύων except the participles ending in ων which are spoken as nouns or adjectives (they are me also ending in – οντας, ουσα):ο ενάγων (or ενάγοντας), η ενάγουσα, ο παρών, η παρούσα, ο επιλαχών,    ο διευθύνων (or διευθύνοντας) σύμβουλος, η άρχουσα τάξη, η τρέχουσα τιμή, το επείγον έγγραφο.

(g) The abolished the final – ν at the end of the words, except the final – ν at the end of the articles and the personal pronouns (τον, την, των) as well as the particles of mood (δεν, μην).

(h) Made οι the feminine article αι of the plural number: οι γυναίκες, (instead of αι γυναίκαι).

(i) Substituted the reference pronouns:  όστις, ήτις, ό,τι, ώσπερ, υπέρ, όπερ, with the «που» or with the:  ο οποίος, η οποία, το οποίον:

_ Για πρώτη φορά έβλεπε τον άνθρωπο τον άνθρωπο με τον οποίο μιλούσε

 

C) The contemporary form of the Greek Words

 

The Modern Greek language does not present similar endings to the endings of the ancient Greek language because, for simplicity reasons, many declinated words of the ancient Greek language were differentiated according to other words. I.e. τάξις > τάξη, πράξις > πράξη became like νίκη, τιμή.

In the declinated nouns, the ancient “third inclination” was changed into a mainly “first inclination” as following:

(a) by changing the declinated ending

 

Ancient Form                                Modern Form

ο ρήτωρ, του ρήτορος..                ο ρήτορας, του ρήτορα…

ο κλητήρ  του κλητήρος               ο κλητήρας του κλητήρα

ο Έλλην   του Έλληνος                ο Έλληνας του Έλληνα

ο γνώμων του γνώμονος             ο γνώμονας του γνώμονα

ο τάπης    του τάπητος                 ο τάπητας του τάπητα

ο κόραξ    του κόρακος               ο κόρακας του κόρακα

ο γραφεύς του γραφέως               ο γραφέας του γραφέα

ο ανδριάς, του ανδριάντος,         ο ανδριάντας, του ανδριάντα

ο πατήρ      του πατρός                ο πατέρας του πατέρα

η μήτηρ    της μητρός                   η μητέρα της μητέρας

η φλόξ      της φλογός                  η φλόγα της φλόγας

η μητρότης της μητρότητος          η μητρότητα της μητρότητας

η οντότης  της οντότητος             η οντότητα της οντότητας

η λύσις     της λύσεως                   η λύση της λύσης

η τάξ ις     της τάξεως                  η τάξη της τάξης

η ακτίς     της ακτίνος                  η ακτίνα της ακτίνας

η αψίς      της αψίδος                    η αψίδα της αψίδας

η πεδιάς     της πεδιάδος              η πεδιάδα της πεδιάδας

η Ελλάς      της Ελλάδος               η Ελλάδα της Ελλάδας

η μονάς     της μονάδος               η μονάδα της μονάδας

 

(b) By changing the gender

ο βούς      του βοός                       το βόδι       του βοδιού

ο κώνωψ του κώνωπος                το κουνούπι του κουνουπιού

ο λέων     του λέοντος                   το λιοντάρι  του λιονταριού

 

(c) Ây changing the number

αι Αθήναι των Αθηνών       η Αθήνα της Αθήνας

αι Θήβαι των Θηβών          η Θήβα της Θήβας

 

Ancient inclination of a declianated noun

                        Singular              Plural

Nominative   η     τάξις        αι     τάξ - εις

Genitive       της τάξ – εως     των  τάξ - εων

Dative          την   τάξ – η        ταις  τάξ - εσι

Accusative    την τάξ – η         τας  τάξ - εις

Vocative       ω   τάξ – ι           ω    τάξ – εις

 

Modern inclination of declinated noun

           Singular                   Plural

Nominative η    τάξ – η      οι    τάξ - εις

Genitive      της τάξ – ης    των τάξ - εων

Accusative   την τάξ – η    τις    τάξ - εις

Vocative            τάξ- η              τάξ - εις

 

Ancient inclination of a verb:

Uncontracted:  τιμάω, -άεις, -άει, - άομεν, - άετε, - άουσι (ν)

Contracted:      τιμώ,     - άς,   - ά,   - ώμεν,  - άτε, - ώσιν

                         δίδ – ωμι,  – ως, -οσι, – ομεν,  – οτε, –όασι

 

Modern (new) inclination of a verb:

τιμ – ώ, - άς, - ά,  - ούμε, - άτε , - ούν

δίν – ω, - εις, - ει – ουμε, - ετε, - ουν

(The uncontracted types of the verb have been abolished)

 

d) Duplication and Bilingualism

Bilinguality is called the mixed language the usage of words that some of which are, for instance, Greek and some are Latin or Turkish. I.e. ο χασάπης, ο μπογιατζής και ο τελάλης θα έλθουν εδώ, για να – instead of: Ο κρεοπώλης, ο ελαιοχρωματιστής και ο κήρυκας θα έλθουν εδώ, για να – The bilinguality is not allowed in a normal speech for reasons of meaning and aesthetics.

There is duplication whenever a word is spoken in two or more forms with two or more different en dings of the same case (Ελλάς and Ελλάδα) for declinated nouns or the same person of verbs (λες and λέγεις). The duplication is due to a mixing of ancient and modern types as well as a mixing of types of the common Greek language with types of some local dialect. The duplication bilimguality therefore is not allowed in a normal speech. In order to avoid the duplication is necessary to learn which are the endings (productive and declinable) of the Modern Greek Language and which are the endings of the contemporary as well as the local language.

 

e) The Endings of the Modern Greek Language

 

I. Endings of Verbs

 

1. Radical

-ω : λύωλύνω, πλένω πνίγω, γράφω,…

-έω-ω, αωω, οω-ω > – ω : καλέωω, δράωώ, δηλόωώ (νω)

-σσω / ττω : πλήττω, φράσσω, πράττω

-υω : μηνύω, ιδρύω

2. Productive

These verbs show what their subject is or becomes or has or provides or does the statement of the original word.

(a) Endings:- ώ, - ώνω

{Verbs derived from nouns}

κτύπος > κτυπάω – ώ, τιμή > τιμάω – ώ, αγάπη > αγαπάω,…

σημείο > σημειώνω, σημειώνομαι, θεμέλιο – θεμελιώνω, ύψος > υψώνω, θυμός > θυμώνω, κλειδί – κλειδώνω, σφήνα – σφηνώνω, πλάκα –πλακώνω

 

{Verbs derived from adjectives}

χαμηλός > χαμηλώνω, ψηλός > ψηλώνω, τυφλός > τυφλώνω

 

(b) Ending: - εύω

{Verbs derived from nouns}

σημάδι > σημαδεύω, σκοπός > σκοπεύω, γύρος > γυρεύω, όνειρο > ονειρεύομαι, δούλος >  δουλεύω

 

{Verbs derived from adjectives}

στενός – στενεύω, δύσκολος > δυσκολεύω

 

(c) Endings: - ίζω, - άζω, - ιάζω

{Verbs derived from nouns}

ελπίδα > ελπίζω, μέρος > μερίζω, αφρός > αφρίζω, σκούπα / σκουπίδι – σκουπίζω, αρχή > αρχίζω, καλημέρα > καλημερίζω, σαράντα > σαρανταρίζω, κλαψούρης (κλαίω, έκλαψα) – κλαψουρίζω, πόρτα – εκπορτίζω

δόξα – δοξάζω, γειτονιά – γειτνιάζω, πλαγιά > πλαγιάζω…

 

{Verbs derived from adjectives or adverbs}

συχνός, συχνά > συχνάζω, αντίκρυ – αντικρίζω,

όμοιος < ομοιάζω, άδειος > αδειάζω

 

(d) Endings: - αίνω, - υνω

{Verbs derived from nouns}

ρύπος > ρυπαίνω, ανάσα > ανασαίνω.

 

{Verbs derived from adjectives}

πράος – πραΰνω, φαιδρός – φαιδρύνω, λαμπρός > λαμπρύνω, οξύς > οξύνω, βραδύνω, δι –ευθύνω, βαθύνω…

μακρύς > μακρύνω ή μακραίνω, βαρύς > βαρύνω or βαραίνω, φαρδύς > φαρδαίνω or φαρδύνω…..

ακριβός – ακριβαίνω, ζεστός > ζεσταίνω, θερμός > θερμαίνω…

 

  

II. Endings of Nouns

 

A.     Neuter

 

1. Radical endings, it meanings names:

-ι: μαλλί, σπαθί, τυρί, ψωμί…

-ας: τέρας, κέρας > κέρατο, πέρας, κρέας…

-ος: μέρος, θέρος, βέλος, τέλος, κράνος…

-ως: φάος –φως, καθεστώς (Contracted)

2. Endings derived from verbs, showing:

a) The result or the consequence (product) of the action:

-(μ) μα (From verbs endings in – ω) : γράφω > γράμμα, κλάμα ,

-τάμα

-εμα (- εύω): κλαδεύω > κλάδεμα, κουρεύω > κούρεμα, γιάτρεμα….

-ωμα (- ώνω): φορτώνω > φόρτωμα, ισιώνω > ίσιωμα, σημείωμα…

-ημα (- ώ): κινώ > κίνημα, μιλώ > μίλημα, πατώ > πάτημα…

-ημα (-αίνω): μαθαίνω > μάθημα, παθαίνω > πάθημα…

-υμα (- ύω): μηνύω > μήνυμα, λύω > λύμα, καταλύω > κατάλυμα…

-σιμο (- ψιμο – ξιμο): στρώνω > στρώσιμο, χάσιμο, ψήσιμο, τρέχω > τρέξιμο, σκάψιμο…

-ητό: βογγώ >βογκητό, παραμιλητό, ξεφωνητό, ροχαλητό, αγκομαχητό..

-ίδι: στολίζω > στολίδι, σκουπίζω > σκουπίδι,…

b) The institution or the bench of the action (service)

-τήριο, - τρο: εκπαιδεύω > εκπαιδευτής - εκπαιδευτήριο, γυμναστήριο, δικαστήριο, θεάομαι / θεατής } θέατρο, κάνιστρο, άγκιστρο

c) The tool of the action

-τήρι : κλαδεύω } κλαδευτήρι, ξυπνητήρι, ψαλτήρι, σκαλιστήρι…

 

3. Endings of nouns derived from other nouns – showing:

(a)      Τhe institution or the bench of the action (service) :

-είο (accented ending) = simple institutions: κουρέας > κουρείο, ιατρείο, γραφείο, Δασαρχείο

-ειο (Unaccented ending) = benevolent institutions: ΖάππαςΖάππειο, Αβερώφειο

-άδικο: ράφτης – ραφτάδικο (instead of : ραφείο ), γαλατάδικο, ψαράδικο…

-ιο:  εστιάτορας – εστιατόριο, φύλακας – φυλάκιο…

-αριό : πλύστρα – πλυσταριό , σκουπιδαριό, καμπαναριό…

(b)      The multitude (collective):

-λό (γ)  ι :  άρχοντας – αρχοντολόι, συγγενολόι..

(c)      The tiny or the caressing designation (diminutive):

-ούδι :  άγγελος > αγγελούδι

-ούλι :  σάκος – σακούλι, κρυφτό – κρυφτούλι

-άκι, α(ρ)άκι, -(ουδ)άκι : αρνί – αρνάκι, ψαράκι, φυλλαράκι, αγγελ(ουδ)άκι…

-άρι (ον) : κριός – κριάρι, πάγκος – παγκάρι, γραμμάριο..

-άκι (ον) : δρόμος – δρομάκι, παιδί – παιδάκι..

-ίδιο :      κράτος – κρατίδιο, σφαίρα – σφαιρίδιο…

(d)      The section

-ι(ον): αέρας – αέριο, όρος – όριο, κλάδος – κλαδί, σκάλα – σκαλί, σκαμνί..

 

B. Masculine

 

1. Endings derived from verbs:

a) The acting person.

They are analyzed into “he, she, it who, which + verb in the third person of the Present”

-της:     ψάλω > ψάλτης, ράβω > ράφτης, κόφτης, ναύτης…

-της:    κρίνω > κριτής, ανακριτής, υποκινητής…

-ευτής:   πρα(γ)ματεύω > πραματευτής, χορευτής…

-ητής:  μαθαίνω > μαθητής, ποιώ > ποιητής, τηλεφωνάω –τηλεφωνητής, απαιτητής, καταπατητής, εκδικητής…

-ήτης (- ώ): κυβερνώ > κυβερνήτης, πλανήτης…

-ωτής (- ώνω): διορθώνω > διορθωτής, θεμελιωτής, λυτρωτής…

-ιστής (- ίζω, - ω): θερίζω > θεριστής, δικαστής, τραγουδιστής…

-υ (ν) της :  διευθύνω > διευθυντής, ιδρύω > ιδρυτής ,μηνυτής…

-ντής :  λιπαίνω > λιπαντής, υφαίνω > υφαντής…

-έας, - ιάς:  κουρεύω > κουρέας, ιππέας, γραμματέας, διανομέας γραφέας (γραφιάς), σκαφέας - σκαφτιάς…

-ήρας: καλώ > κλητήρας , κρατώ > κρατήρας…

-(ά)τορας : συμβουλεύω > συμβουλάτορας, εισπράττω – εισπράκτορας, διδάκτορας…

b) The medium or the tool of the action

They are analyzed into “he, she, it who, which + verb in the Present”

-ος: τρέχω > τροχός, τρέφω > τροφός, πέμπω > πομπός..

-τήρας, - τήρα: κλαδεύω > κλαδευτήρι or κλαδευτήρας, κινητήρας, καταβρεχτήρας…

c) The place of the action;

It is analyzed into  “there where + verb in the Present”

-τήριο: εκπαιδεύω – εκπαιδευτήριο, γυμναστήριο, δικαστήριο,…

d) The result of the action

They are analyzed into “it which  + verb in the Aorist (= past tense) or the Perfect Tense”

-ος: λέγω > λόγος, φέρω > φόρος, τρέμω > τρόμος, κατέχω > κάτοχος…

-μός: πνίγω > πνιγμός, κραδαίνω > κραδασμός, χάνω > χαμός,    διωγμός, παλμός…

-ωμός (- ώνω): λυτρώνωλυτρωμός

2. Endings derived from nouns, showing:

a. Ideology or Behavior

-ισμός : Χριστιανός > Χριστιανισμός, Έλληνας > Ελληνισμός,  άνθρωπος > ανθρωπισμός, εγώ – εγωισμός, αθλητισμός…

b. The follower of an Ideology or Behavior

-ιστής : Βούδας > βουδιστής, ελληνιστής, ανθρωπιστής, εγωιστής…

c. The caressing diminutive characterization

-άκης  :    κόσμος > κοσμάκης, Γιώργος > Γιωργάκης…

-άκος  :   δρόμος > δρομάκος, γεροντάκος…

-ούλης :  παππούς > παππούλης, αδελφούλης, Θάνος > Θανούλης

-ισκος :  σατράπης > σατραπίσκος, θαλαμίσκος, κολπίσκος..

d. Content (concentrated)

-(ι)ώνας :  άχερα > αχερώνας, ελαιώνας, περιστερώνας, καλαμιώνας

-ιάς : πεύκο > πευκιάς, πλατανιάς

e. The vacationer or the operator

-άς: ψάρια – ψαράς, γάλα – γαλατάς, σίδερα – σιδεράς…

-άριος : αποθήκη – αποθηκάριος , βιβλιοθήκη – βιβλιοθηκάριος…

-τζής : κουλούρια – κουλουρτζής, παλιατζής, ταξιτζής…

-ίας  :  εισόδημα – εισοδηματίας , κτήματος – κτηματίας…

-(ι) άρης : λύρα > λυράρης , βάρκα > βαρκάρης , σκουπιδιάρης..

 

C. Masculine & féminine

 

a.  Magna, large:

- αρα, - αρού:  φέτα > φετάρα, κοιλιά > κοιλάρα, χορεύτρια, χορευταρού…

- αρος, - αράς :  παιδί > παίδαρος, παιδαράς, κοιλαρά,  χορευταράς

b.  Native:

-ος , - ίδα: Γαλλία > Γάλλος , Γαλλίδα, Ιταλία > Ιταλός, Ιταλίδα,..

-ίτης, -ίτισσα: Αράχοβα > Αραχωβίτης, Πολίτης, Πολίτης, Ανατολίτης..

- αϊτης, - ίτισσα : Μοριάς >  Μοραΐτης,  Μοραϊτισσα, Χρυσαϊτης…

- ιάτης,,σσα : Μάνη > Μανιάτης, Μανιάτισσα,…

-(ι)ώτης,σσα: Ηπειρώτης, Σουλιώτης, Γιαννιώτης, Γιαννιώτισσα

-ι(α)νός,ή,ανός,α: Ζακυνθινός,ή, Αφρικανός,ή, Αμερικάνος,α…

-ιός, ιά,ιος,ια :Θεσσαλονικιός, -ιά, Αιγύπτιος, Λημνιός, Μυτιληνιός,

- ιά- αίος, - αία : Αθήνα > Αθηναίος,α, Θηβαίος, Κερκυραίος,a..

- έζος,α : Βιέννη > Βιεννέζος, Κινέζος, Κινέζα, Μαλτέζος, Δανέζα

c.  Surnames:      

- ίδης,η (Pontus) : μέλισσα > Μελισσίδης, Κωνσταντινίδης , Κρονίδης

-άκης,η (Crete) :Κυριάκος > Κυριακάκης, Κυριακάκη, Κασάπης > Κασαπάκης…

-άκος,ου, -όγκονας,α (Sparta – Mani): Πέτρος > Πετράκος, Δημακάκου,  Δημαρόγκονας….

-όπουλος,ου (Peloponnese – Morias): Μανώλης > Μανωλόπουλος, Δημόπουλος, Δημοπούλου…          

d.  Being in relationship:

-ώτης, - ώτισσα: θίασος > θιασώτης, στρατός >  στρατιώτης, πατρίς > πατριώτης, πατριώτισσα …

-ίτης, - ίτισσσα : τέχνη > τεχνίτης,,  μεσίτης,  τραπεζίτης, πολίτης,…

 

 

D. Feminine

 

1. Endings derived from verbs, showing:

a) The action or the situation

From the Present of the Active Voice:

- η: γράφω > γραφή, τέμνω > τομή, νέμω > νομή, μετέχω > μετοχή, εξέχω > εξοχή…

- α : φέρω > φορά, φόρα, ανασαίνω – ανάσα, παστρεύω, - πάστρα

- εία (- εύω): λατρεύω > λατρεία, πορεύομαι – πορεία, θεραπεία, βασιλεία,  δουλεία

- ειά (- εύω): δουλεύω > δουλειά, γιατρεύω > γιατρειά

- εια (- ώ):   βοηθώ > βοήθεια, προσπαθώ > προσπάθεια, ωφέλεια

- ία (- ώ):   (ο)μιλώ > ομιλία – μιλιά, βαθμολογώ- βαθμολογία…

From the Aorist (paste tense) of the Active Voice:

-ση, ξη, ψη: λάμψη (λάμπω), βράση, φύλαξη, τάξη, σκέψη

-ωση (- ώνω): βεβαιώνω > βεβαίωση, δικαίωση, δήλωση

-ηση (- ώ):  κυβερνάω > κυβέρνηση, γέννηση, κίνηση

-ιση (- ίζω): διαφημίζω > διαφήμιση

-υση (- ύω): λύ (ν) ω > λύση, φύω > φύση, μήνυση, ίδρυση

-οιση: αθρόω > άθροιση

b) The tool of action

-ίδα : γράφω – γραφίδα, λαμβάνω – λαβίδα..

-άλα : κρεμώ – κρεμάλα, φουσκώνω – φουσκάλα..

 

2. Endings derived from adjectives, showing the quality or the peculiarity:

-ία (accented, from adjectives ending in – ος) : κακός > κακία, φίλος >φιλία, σοφός > σοφία

-α, -η (with alteration of accent) : αλμυράαλμύρα, γλυκάγλύκα, ζεστήζέστη, θερμήθέρμη

-αδα : σκληρός > σκληράδα, νοστιμάδα, αγριάδα, μονός > μονάδα…

-ίλα :  πικρός – πικρίλα, άσπρος – ασπρίλα, ξινός – ξινίλα…

-οσύνη :  δίκαιος > δικαιοσύνη, καλοσύνη, αγιοσύνη…

-ότητα : αθώος > αθωότητα, ορθότητα, βεβαιότητα…

-ύτητα : γλυκύς > γλυκύτητα, οξύς – οξύτητα, βαρύς – βαρύτητα, ταχύς – ταχύτητα..

& Endings derived from nouns:

-ότητα : εχθρός > εχθρότητα, μητρότητα, ποσότητα,…

 

3. Endings derived from other nouns, showing:

(a) The feminine of a masculine noun (or a masculine name):

-αινα : Γιώργης – Γιώργαινα, Τζαβέλας – Τζαβέλαινα, δράκος –  δράκαινα, λέων – λέαινα, λύκος – λύκαινα…

(b) The caressing diminutive characterization:

-ίτσα :  Ελένη – Ελενίτσα, γάτα – γατίτσα, κλωστίτσα,,,

-ούδα,-ούλα:  πλέξη – πλεξούδα, βρύση – βρυσούλα, μητερούλα,     κορούλα…

(c) Content (Concentrated)

-ουριά : κλέφτης > κλεφτουριά, λάσπη > λασπουριά, κουμπουριά…

-ιά  :     πλατάνια > πλατανιά, καλαμιά, αμμουδιά…

-ωνιά : χειμώνας > χειμωνιά, γειτονιά, συννεφιά, καλοκαιριά…

(d) Plant

-ιά : αμύγδαλο -  αμυγδαλιά, κεράσια – κερασιά, αχλαδιά

 

 

III. Endings of Adjectives

 

1. Endings derived from Roots,

(In various meanings: character, color)

-ος,η,ο :  καλός, σωστός, άσπρος, μαύρος…

2. Endings derived from nouns

They are analyzed in preposition + nouns: πέτρινος = από πέτρα, εμπύρετος = με πυρετό, μηνιαίος = κατά μήνα, or in the phrase « που είναι από / σαν + noun: ξύλινος = που είναι από ξύλο); showing:

a. Original material or source

-ένιος: ασήμι > ασημένιος, σταρένιος, μπακιρένιος, μολυβένιος…

-ινος :  μαλλί > μάλλινος, ξύλο > ξύλινος, πέτρα > πέτρινος…

-ίσιος,α,ο: αρνί > αρνίσιος, φιδίσιος, βαρελίσιος, βουνίσιος,  παλικαρίσιος…

b. Color

-ής, - ιά, ί : μέλι > μελής, σταχτής, ασημής, βυσσινής

-ινός, η, ο : πράσο (πράσο) > πράσινος, κίτρο (κίτριον) > κίτρινος..

c. Content

-άτος : αφρός > αφράτος, μελάτος, κρασάτος, δροσάτος..

d. Repletion (abundance)

-εινός : σκότος > σκοτεινός, φωτεινός, ορεινός, υγιεινός…

-ηρός : τόλμη > τολμηρός, λυπηρός, οδυνηρός, νοσηρός, μοχθηρός…

-ιερός : δροσιά > δροσερός, φθονερός, σκιερός, φλογερός

-ώβδης,η,ες: ευωδιά > ευώδης, μυώδης, θορυβώδης, κτηνώδης…

-ηλός : απάτη > απατηλός, υψηλός, σφριγηλός,…

e.  Dimension, weight, and size (width, length)

-ύς, ιά, ύ : φάρδος > φαρδύς, βαρύς, πλατύς, μακρύς,..

f.  Appearance or condition

-ίστικος : αγόρι > αγορίστικος, κορίτσι > κοριτσίστικος…

-ωπός :  χαρά > χαρωπός, σκυθρωπός…

-ωτός : αγκάθι > αγκαθωτός, μετάξι > μεταξωτός…

-(ι) άρης : πείσμα > πεισματάρης, κόκαλο > κοκαλιάρης…

-λέος : δίψα > διψαλέος, πειναλέος

-ηλός, - ωλός : σιωπή > σιωπηλός, απατηλός, αμαρτωλός, φειδωλός…

-ερός :  βροχή > βροχερός, φλόγα > φλογερός, δροσερός…

-ιος,α,ο: τιμή > τίμιος, λόγιος, άθλιος, αιώνιος, μαραθώνιος, πλούσιος

-είος : άντρας > αντρείος, γυναίκα > γυναικείος…

g.  Time or period

-άτικος : Μάιος > Μαγιάτικος, κυριακάτικος, χειμωνιάτικος…

-ιαίος, - ήσιος : μήνας > μηνιαίος, ημερήσιος, ετήσιος…

-ινός :  φθινόπωρο > φθινοπωρινός, θερινός , καλοκαιρινός,…

h.  Place or country

-ικός :  Γαλλία, Γάλλος > γαλλικός, θεσσαλικός, κρητικός, χωρικός…

-ικος : Σούλι, Σουλιώτης > σουλιώτικος,  ρουμελιώτικος…

-αιος,α : Θήβα > Θηβαίος , Κερκυραίος,α…

-ιακός :  ήλιος > ηλιακός, σελήνη > σεληνιακός…

-κός,ή, ό :  καρδιά > καρδιακός, οικογενειακός, ή….

-ικος : γέρος > γέρικος, κλέφτικος, γύφτικος…

3. Endings derived from verbs

They are analyzed in “he, she, who, it which + verb in the third person; showing:

a) He who provides or contains what the verb states:

-τός  (a’ conjugation): γράφω > γραφτός, σφικτός, σβηστός, ακουστός, σβηστός,  ανοιχτός

-ητός (β’ conjugation): ξυπνώ > ξυπνητός, κρατώ > ακράτητος,  αγαπητός, ποθητός

-ωτός (from verb in –ώνω): καμαρώνω > καμαρωτός, αυλακωτός, απλωτός

-ητικός, -ιστικός, -ετικός: ενοχλώ > ενοχλητικός,  δροσίζω – δροσιστικός, παραπονιέμαι > παραπονετικός, ενεργώ >  ενεργητικός…

-ερός : θλιβω > θλιβερός, λάμπω > λαμπερός…

-κός : καρτερώ > καρτερικός, πειθαρχώ > πειθαρχικός…

-(η) τήριος : κινώ > κινητήριος, σώζω > σωτήριος….

-νος :  σέβομαι > σεβνός > σεμνός, τέρπω > τερπνός….

b) What must be done stated the verb:

-ετέος: αφαιρώ > αφαιρετέος, διαιρετέος, μειώνω – μειωτέος,   προσθετέος,..

c) He who is able to become what a the verb states:

-σιμος : κατοικώ > κατοικήσιμος, φα(γ)ώνομαι > φαγώσιμος… 

4. Endings derived from other adjective:

a.      Caressing diminutive:

-ούλης : άσπρος > ασπρούλης, κοντός > κοντούλης..

-ούτσικος : ζεστός > ζεστούτσικος , μικρούτσικος , καλούτσικος,..

b.      Appearance:

-ωπός : άγριος > αγριωπός , κοκκινωπός , πρασινωπός…

-ιδερός : μαύρος > μαυριδερός , ασπριδερός…

-ουλός : βαθύς > βαθουλός , παχουλός , μακρουλός…

5. Endings derived from adverbs.

They are analyzed in “he, she, who, it which is + adverb; showing place or time:

-ινός, - ινή, - ινό: χθες > χθεσινός, κοντά > κοντινός, μακρινός, σημερινός, φετινός, πύρινος

-ιανός:  παρακάτω > παρακατιανός , αύριο > αυριανός

 

 

IV. Endings of Adverbs

 

The adverbs are derived from some adjectives, pronouns, participles and adverbs having the endings:

-ως, - α:  καλός > καλώς , καλά , διαρκής > διαρκώς , επόμενος >  επομένως…

-ού:  άλλος > αλλού , αυτός > αυτού

-θέ:  εδώ > εδώθε , εκεί > εκείθε , ολούθε , αλλούθε

 

Normally the adverbs are derived:

1) From the nominative case of the Singular Number of masculine adjectives and participles by abstracting the article and removing the accent one syllable downwards if they accented on the antepenult (the adverbs are written with  -ω <omega> to be distinguished):  ο καλός (adjective) > καλώς (adverb), ο βόρειος (adjective) > βορείως (adverb) , ο επόμενος (participle) > επομένως (adverb). Similarly: υπογείως, κακώς, αεροπορικώς, ομολογουμένως, προηγουμένως, δικαιολογημένα / -ως, ηθελημένα.

2) From the nominative case of the Plural Number of neuter adjectives by removing only the article: τα καλά (adjective) > καλά (adverb). Similarly: βόρεια, ετήσια, καλύτερα, βορειότερα, άριστα.

3) From the substitution of the ending – ως in adjectives ending in – ης:  ο δυστυχής (δύστυχος), - η, - ο + adjective) > δυστυχώς ( = adverb) Similarly: ευτυχώς , διαρκώς , διακαώς , συνεχώς , σαφώς.

4) From prepositions or from other adverbs: εν > εντός , εν + αντί > έναντι,  εκ > εκτός,  εξ > έξω , επί + άνω > απάνω, κατά>κάτω , ανά +μετά +εξ >  αναμεταξύ , χωρίς > χώρια,  εν  ώρα > (ε) νωρίς , επί + έτος > εφέτος – φέτος , αντί + άκρη >  αντίκρυ,   όλη νύκτα > οληνυκτίς , απόβραδο > αποβραδίς , κοντολογίς

5) From the indirect cases (of the ancient Greek Language) : του χρόνου,        τα (η) + ώρα > τώρα , τη ημέρα > τήμερα + σήμερα , εξ ίσου > εξίσου,  επί ίσης > επίσης…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 6th  

FALSIES FOR

GREEK LANGUAGE 

 

 

1. The false of Indo-European Language

 

According to certain European linguistics of 18/19th century AD (Italian F. Sasseti, German F. Bopp, English W. Jones and others) three thousand years ago all the peoples from India to Germany was an nation and had a common language. From this language, so called <<Maternal Indo- German or Indo-European Language>, other languages like Greek, Latin etc have been derived! It is concluded, because these languages have some common words.

 

The above opinions are wrong, because:

1) All language has common words, because in each language there are in one hand foreign words and “Linguistics loans” and in other hand sounding made words.

Sound made words are those made by the imitation of sounds in the environment (cry of animals, soynd of air etc), i.e.: vuuu or bu… > bull, buffalo, βους > βόδι, same: bomb,  cry, …

In all word, all athletes, doctors, operatives, workmen… use common words, same names, i.e.: Ολυμπία > Olympia, Λονδίνο > London, Χρηστός > Christ…. 

2) If such language – nation had existed, she will had left indication, script or architect monuments (inscription, epigraphs etc)

3) The ancient writer Thucydides (A, 3 – 19) say that all peoples until 80 years after Trojan war (the times of last cathodes of Doriens) was living  with nomad and emigration vita, because until these times there is not secure (army), agriculture etc. Cretan king Minos was the first that makes naval army and lows and stopped the emigration of Greeks in Aegean see etc. The ancient writer Herodotus (A 54 - 95) says that until Trojan War there are not Greeks and barbarians, but all people was barbarian, but some nomads. In these times for first time the Greek nation delivered from barbarian nation etc.

4) All language change day by day. See the New Greek language that is different to ancient.

5) Each language is made from his people in the time and from its lingual ability.

 

 (For more see in Greek book: 

«Linguistics Lessons», by A. Krassanakis)

 

 

 

2. The falsies for the different ancient Greek Language and for Greek historical script

 

According to a medieval point of view expressed by Dutch philologist Desiderius Erasmus (1457 – 1536 A.D.) in the <<Dialogus de recta Latini Graecique serminis pronunciatione>>, which, unfortunately, remains even nowadays the official thesis of foreign scholars about the Greek Grammar, the Greek script and the current writings with Latin characters (English, French etc) are historical. That means that:

1) The New Greek write in the way their forefathers were once used to write speak. They write in the ancient way (the ancient pronounce), but their pronunciation is different (the pronounce of today).

2) The ancient Greek language is different (variant) compared to the modern one because the ancient Greek contained the phthongs (sound, voice of words) ω, η, υ, which have survived in the modern Greek script traditionally and historically!

 

Beginning the Erasmus from the thought that the ancient Greeks it was not possible they begin the writing with a lot of points (letters of alphabet) for same sound (phthong) of the word, e.g. the letters Y and I for the sound [ι], the letters O and Ω for the sound [o] etc led from now on error conclusion:

(I) The writing of new Greeks (and the writings with the Latin characters, because imitate the writing of ancient Greeks) is historical, because it maintains from habit the letters Ω, Η, Υ… E.g.: τιμώ, καλώ … while they ceased represent sounds of Greek language, because they coincided with the accent of O, I,

(II) The ancient Greek language was different from news, because:

a) ancient contained also the sounds of words that was written with letters Ω, Η, Υ, where the letter Η pronounced as long [ε], that is to say until two extended [εε], The letter Ω pronounced as long [ο], that is to say until two extended [oo ] and Y as [u ]. For the himself the clusters: AI EI YI OY AY EY IY, HY…. pronounced as shows their digits, that is to say: AI = [ a-i ], EI = [ e-i ], YI = [ o-i ], OY = [ o-i], AY = [ au ], EY = [ eu ], HY = [ eeu ]…..

b) the doubly similar letters mm, nn, ss,... pronounced and the two and not only the one where pronounce today,

c) the letters d, b, g pronounced as "nt, mp, nk/g" and no until today.

 

Pronunciation of ancient Greek words, according to the Erasmus: γεωργία (agriculture) = "geoorgja" and no "gheorghίa", Ευρώπη (Europe) = euroopee" and no" evro'pi ", αυστηρός (strict) = "austeeros" and no "afstιrόs", είναι (is) = "eϊnaϊ" and no "ίne", ηύρα = "eura" and no "ίvra"…

 

It is marked that:

1. The above-mentioned opinion of Erasmus caused then reaction in very a lot of scholars, Greeks and foreigners, as in Κλέωνα Ραγκαβή (Kl. Ragavi) in the German (Vavaro) philologist I. Ρόυχλιν (I. Reuhlin), 1445 -1522 p.Cr. (by where were named the opponents of Erasmus "ροϋχλικοί'" or ιωτακιστές, because pronounced the letters H, Y, EI, OI, YI as letter I and no thus, as proposed the Erasmus) saying that such something neither in the Byzantine delivery neither in the ancient writers is reported. However they did not convince also the wrong above-mentioned opinion for the Greek system of writing introduced in the Greek and foreigner Universities.

2. Above-mentioned Erasmus opinion (aspect), even if it is error, was imported in the schools of west the 16th century and is in effect up to today.

 

 

The above opinion of Erasmus is wrong, because:

A) Historical script is the script with the Latin characters (English, Dutch, France etc) and not the Greek. In these scripts we write many words like in Greek or Latin and not according to a writing system, for examples:

Greek: πρόβλημα, τιτάν(ας), Γεωργία, Ευρώπη, ιδέα, τυπώ(νω),  φωτοτυπία, νέο,  Ολυμπιακός,  φιλοσοφία, τηλέφωνο...... 

& English: problem (“πρόμπλεμ»), titan(«ταϊταν»), George («τζόρτζια»), Europe («γιούροπ»), idea («αϊντία»), type  («τάϊπ»), prototype , new, Olympia philosophy, telephone,... 

Latin: cluba (κλούμπα -κλούβα), cupa (κούπα), America, pluς (πλους), imperial («ιμπέριαλ»), lina («λίνα»), douo > double («ντουπλέ»), catae («κάτε - γάτες»).. 

& English: club («κλάμπ»), cup («κάπ»), America, plus («πλας»), imperial («ιμπίριαλ»), line («λάϊν»), double ("ντάμπλ"), gates (γκέϊτς)

B) In ancient Greek language there are the same phthongs (= sounds of words) as in modern. Simple in Greek script, old and modern, there are homophone (same sound, same voice) letters, the letters: o & ω = (o), ε & αι = [ ε],     η & υ & ι & ει & οι & υι = [ι]...,  and each word is written with one of these homophones letters according to its etymology (= according to its part of speech, form of word: gender, number, case... and derivation or composition) on the one hand in order to establish (help) its meaning and on the other to distinguish the homophone (same sounds)  words, i.e.: καλώ & καλό, κουτί & κουτή & κουτοί, φύλο & φύλλο,...

Rules:

The verbs are writing with –ω: σήκω, καλώ, φοιτώ, λέγω...

The adverbs with –ω(ς): καλώς, κακώς... παρακάτω, άνω, κάτω

The females with –η: Καλή, κακή, Νίκη, νίκη...

The males with –ο: Καλός, κακός, Νίκος...

The neutrals with –ο,ι: σύκο, κακό, ελαφρό... τυρί, φιλί...

,..............

 

Phonetic (oral speech): “kalό, sίko, άporo, άdhiko.....

& Script with the Greek script:

καλ-ό, σύκ-ο, άπορ-ο, άδικ-ο,... 

(the  neutrals  are writing at ending  with letter –ο )

 & καλ-ώ, σήκ-ω, απορ-ώ, αδικ-ώ,... 

(the verbs are writing at ending with letter  -ω)

 

In Greek script, if you see a written word with the letter –ω (at the ending), it is mean that this word is verb: καλ-ώ,είς... With the letter -o = neuter: καλ-ό, σύκο.., with the letter -η = masculine: καλ-ή, καλ-ής.....

 

In examining the words we notice that many of them are homophones (similar voice, same sound words) which was caused by either phonological variation or their mutations in time and on inflection (because of homophonic endings): καλ(έ)-ω > καλώ, καλ(έ)-εις > καλείς, καλ(έ)-ει > καλεί...  (= verb, ρήμα) & καλός, καλή, καλό (= adjective, επίθετο ) & καλός > καλοί (plural)...

Moreover in examining these same sound words, we notice that they do not belong to the same kind of speech or gender or form of the words.

In addition, the Greek script have for some phthongs more letters than one (see o & ω, η & υ & ι...), so that by writing some parts of speech or types (gender, case etc) of the words with some homophone letters on the one hand and with the rest on the other hand for suggestion. In that way we distinguish between the same sound words and find help in the analysis and discovering the meaning of a word. For instance:

Phonetically:  καλός, καλί, καλίς, καλό…..”

= In Greek script (Orthographically):

καλώ, καλείς, καλεί...  (With –ω, if it is verb)

καλό, καλή, καλής, ...    (With – ο,η, if it is adjective)

καλώς (With –ως, if it is adverb) & καλός (with –ος  if it is adjective)

καλή (With –η, if it is singular)  &  καλοί  (with –οι,  if it is plural)

 

Same: “ίλι” = ύλη & ίλη & ήλοι & είλη, “ίδι” = είδη & ήδη & Ίδη, «λίπι» = λύπη & λείπει & λίπη, «φίλο» = φίλο & φύλο & φύλλο, «λίρα»= λίρα & λύρα, «κουτί» = κουτί & κουτοί & κουτή...

The examples above show us that whenever there are no the homophone letters, we are not able to know what we write.  Because of the same sound words we are not able to distinguish whether a words is noun or verb, male or female, plural or singular....

 

3) If the new (modern) Greek script were historical, then:

a) The Greek words are always written with the same letters (as it happen in English writing), however such something does not happen, see:

Ancient (αρχαία): τιμάω, φάος, κόνις, πυρία, Ελλάς, ανθέει, δένδρον…

= modern (νέα): τιμώ, φως, σκόνη, σπύρτα, Ελλάς, ανθεί, δέντρο

b) In a lot of written words would exist dimension between accent and writing, as it happens in the English for example historical writing. That is to say they would be presented the phenomenon for the same letter we have very a lot of or different accents or with a letter we depict different sounds of the words, however such something it does not happen, see eg that in the words: καλή, σοφή, ώρα, θεός, συν, σφαίρα, θείος(= good (woman), wise man, hour, god, plus, ball, uncle…) the letters o,ω pronounce always [o], the letter ε,αι always ε….

On the contrary, see eg in English: ιδέα > idea (= accent "αίntία"), Ευρώπη > Europe (accent "ghjou'rop"), go (“nko-u”), doc (“ntok”), come (“kam”), one (“oua'n”)…... where, and as we see here, the letters they are always one and alone accent, but many, depending on the word (see eg that the letter o pronounce when oou, when o, when a, when oua' ...).

 

Naturally in the Greek writing the tow digits letters: oυ, ει, υι, αι they have always also these the this accent in all the written speech: καλοί, σφαίρα, καλεί, υιός, ποίοι… (= good, does ball, call, son…) and various from diphthongs (= two phtongs, two sounds of words): οϋ, εϊ, οϊ, υϊ, αϊ: προϋπόθεση, θεϊκός, δυϊκός, Μάϊος, ευνοϊκός

 

We remind that:

a) In the Greek script the homophones letters (= these with which we suggest with rules the etymology of words) are other of one only digit: o and ω, η and ι... and other of two digits: ει and οι,υι… And this for technical (comprehension, etymologycal) reasons, as we saw in the book "Τhe Greek system of writing", A. Krasana'ki.

b) The diphthongs are distinguished by the two digits letters with the “διαλυτικά» (diaresis, resolvents marks) and the accentual mark: παϊδάκια, δυϊκός, ολόϊδιος, θεϊκός, Μάιος.. (τα: αϊ, εϊ, οϊ.. = diphthong, two sounds of word) & παιδάκια, θείος (τα: αι, ει.. = two digits letters), orthographic points that do not exist in the Latin writing so that the linguists of this writing tangle the diphthongs with the two digits letters and say error things (as that: αι, oι, υιpronounced before as α-ι, ο-ι, ου-ι…, ..), something that parrot, impermissible, and the current Greek linguists.

 

4) If in the ancient Greek the letter ω pronounced as oo, the letter η as εε, then:

a) The words eg: πλοίαρχοι, ανθρώπιναι, παράγωγη.. it would not be supposed they had accentual mark there that has, but a syllable below, after it is not possible is stressed word above from pro parali'gousa (= second syllable from final syllable). Then this short and long y that pronounced? .

b) Why exist  the: εε, αα, ιι… in the words: νέες & νήες, ευυπόληπτος, πλέετε, Αθηνά & Αθηνάα, μνάα, Αβραάμ, Ααρών, περιίσταμαι, διίσταμαι, διισχυρίσθη, διισχυρίσατο, έπλεε, ποιέεις, πειέει, ποίεε, ποιέετε, Ετεοκλέες,.., προορίζω, πρόοδος, προοίμιο.....;  

See and that charm of these and unanimous o & ω, η & υ.... we have help in the etymology of words in writing:: πρώτος & προ-ορίζω (with the two oo, we understand that we have complex word), δια, διάφορος & διίσταμαι  (with the two ιι we understand that we have complex word),

 

5) If the letters H and I and EI… in the ancient season they differed in the accent or if e.g. two digits letter EI pronounced as εϊ,… as says the Erasmus, then:

a) Why ancient they said ορθογραφία (= correct - spelling) and no ορθοφθογγία (= correct sounding)

b) Why the letters Η, Ω before the 5th/4th century before Christ doesn’t exist in the signs of Attica, Crete etc minus only in these with the Ionic alphabet? There they did not exist, because they had somehow different orthographic system.

c) The Plato ("Kraty'los") in one hand it wouldn't search it finds why does happen this and in other hand it would not say what it says, that is to say that letter H him we put instead I, when the thing is something long, the letter I him puts instead the H when the thing is something small'…. as well as that letter E in the word ΠΟΣΕΙΔΩΝ (= Neptune) has entered perhaps for decency, hence is not read etc.:

«Τω δε αυ  ιώτα προς τα λεπτά πάντα, α δη μάλιστα δια πάντων ιοι αν. Δια ταύτα το <<ιέναι>> και το <<ιεσθαι>> δια του ιώτα   απομιμείται….. Το δε αυ άλφα τω <<μεγάλω>> απέδωκε και  τω <<μήκει>> το ήτα, ότι μεγάλα τα γράμματα.   Εις δε το <<γογγύλον >> του  ου    δεόμενος σημείου τούτο πλείστον αυτω εις το  όνομα  ανεκέρασεν. (Κρατύλος 426 - 427  ),

 «Ποσειδώνα, το δε ε έγκειται ίσως ευπρεπείας ένεκα» (Κρατύλος 402 e)

 (For more see in Greek book: 

«GREEK SCRIPT», by A. Krassanakis)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 7th  

THE VALUE AND WORLD-WIDE CONTRIBUTION

OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE AND SYSTEM OF WRITING

 

1. Reasons for which the Greek language and the Greek system of writing should once again become international and the official protocol of the European Union.

 

The Greek language and the Greek system of writing, as evidenced by scientific sources, a watershed event not only in the history of Western civilization with the Greek’s invention of the alphabet and their system of writing, but also constitute the means of precise expression by the creative human mind and spirit during mankind’s initial great moments in the development of civilization and simultaneously comprise the foundation, base and support for all other European languages.

Specifically, the Greek language is of fundamental importance to the languages and cultures of the world, not only because it captured and recorded the most cultivated and philosophical thought of the ancient world, but also because it is the base and support not only of the modern Greek language, but also of a whole list of others, such as Latin and the so called Latin-based languages (Italian, English, French, etc.). There is no language today that does not contain Greek words or derivatives of Greek words, and that is why it is considered the “mother of all languages”. While the people of the world in translating the ancient Greek writings (arts & science, literary, philosophy, epics, poetry, etc.), they imported into their own languages apart from the Greek intellectuality and thought many Greek words as well. Innumerable is the Greek vocabulary that is found in the international arena of languages and dialects. For example, it is estimated that the international English language (i.e., English used globally) contains today in excess of 50,000 words of Greek origin, for example:

Greek: Ευρώπη, αλφάβητο, γραμματική, συλλαβή, δίφθογγοι, Άγγελος, Βίβλος, βιβλιογραφία, διάλογος, Εθνικός, Φαντασία, Γεωγραφία, Ιστορία, είδωλο, Χιλιόμετρο, φιλοσοφία…

English: Europe, alphabet, grammatical, grammar, syllable, diphthongs, angel, Bible, bibliography, dialogue, ethnic, fantasy, geography, history, idol, kilometer, philosophy

Also, the Greek alphabet is of fundamental importance to the world-wide art of writing and culture, not only because it captured and precisely recorded the most cultivated and philosophical thought of the ancient world, which today guides us, as linguist Charles Higounet very rightly observes and remarks, but also and not only because it is the base of the modern Greek art of writing, but also because of a whole list of other writings, such as writings with Latin characters (English, Italian, French, German, etc.), the Slavic writings (Bulgarian, Russian, etc.), as we will see below, consequently the largest percentage of current writings.

 The Greek language and the Greek scriptures are responsible for the birth and development of science and the arts. The Greeks were the first to discover and implement the simple but perfect system of writing, as we will see below, consequently having the capability to not only easily record their experiences, but also by studying them at a later time, they progressed and became first in the letters, arts and sciences: Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus, Thucydides, Heracletus, Democritus, Plato, Aristotle, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, and….and…and…

The first texts of Mathematics, Physics, Astronomy, Law, Medicine, History, Linguistics, etc., were written in the Greek language and alphabet. The first theatrical works (plays), as well as the Byzantine literary works have been written in the Greek language.

The Greek language and Greek writing system were spread internationally first during the period of Alexander The Great and the Hellenistic period that followed. They were also used extensively during the Roman and Byzantine empires, while many Roman men, the aristocracy and well to do citizenry came to Athens to study and learn Greek and the Greek culture.

The Greek language and the Greek alphabet are those that the most known ancient religions were written and then spread throughout the world. That is to say, that of the Olympian gods and Christianity (New Testament). Most Apostles: Paul, John, Lukas, etc….Just as, many Hebrews had gotten a Greek education, knew the Greek language and alphabet and for that reason they wrote the Gospels directly in Greek for the purpose of making them known throughout the world.

Also, the New Testament became known throughout the world after its translation from Hebrew into Greek.

The Greek language and Greek scriptures are those that helped in the decipherment of many of the ancient writings. This happened, because during the period of Alexander The Great and the Hellenistic period that followed, the Greek language and alphabet were international and many signs, name plates, columns, tombs, etc., were in scripted bilingually, i.e., the column of Rosette in Greek and Egyptian, the epigram ‘Rampad’ in Alep in Greek, Syriac and Arabic, the epigram ‘Arran’ in Aouran in Greek and Arabic, etc.

 

In regard to the value of the Greek Language:

The Roman statesman and philosopher Cicero said that if the gods spoke they would use the Greek language.

Gaita, the German writer and philosopher, said that he had heard the Gospel in various languages; however, when he heard it in Greek it seemed as if the Moon had appeared in the sky.

The French Academician and Poet Claude Fauriel (1772-1844) said that the Greek language assembles the wealth and homogeneity of the German language, the clarity of French, the beauty of Spanish and the musicality of Italian.

The famous blind American writer Ellen Keller compared the preciseness and perfection of expression of the human thought in the Greek Language with the most perfect of the musical instruments, the violin.

The French writer and academic Margarite Yourceyar said: I loved this Greek language for its robust plasticity, where each of its words certifies its direct and different contact with the truths, and because whatever has been said worthy by man, for the most part has been said in this language.

The Greek poet and academic N Vrettakos said: When I die and I‘m gone to the Heavens, i will speak to the angels in Greek, because they do not know any other language, other than the language of music.

The German poet, historian and philosopher Schiller said: Cursed Greek, you have discovered everything: philosophy, geometry, physics, astronomy….. You have left nothing for us.

“We are all Greeks. Our laws, our literature, our religion, our arts, have their root in Greece (Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1792 – 1822)

 

In addition to the above, the Greek Language, alphabet and grammar, as we will further see, are nearly perfect and the easiest of all others.  Hence, for all of the above, the Greek language and the Greek system of writing should enjoy world-wide respectability, attention and protection and once again become international and the official protocol of the European Union.

 

 

ENGLISH SPEECHES

WITH GREEK WORDS

 

 The former Prime Minister and professor Xenophon Zolotas had given two speeches in Washington D.C. (on September 26, 1957 and on October 2, 1959), which remain memorable and characterized by the international press as a “Linguistic Feat - Linguistic Epic! ”. The reason for this was not only due to the content of these speeches but also due to the language in which they were given. It is assumed that the language for public speeches is English. In substance however, with the exception of a few conjunctions, articles and prepositions the language is Greek. The attendees that constituted the membership at the conference of the International Monetary Bank for Reconstruction and Growth did not have any problem understanding the uniqueness and magnificence of the text of the speeches given by the Greek professor.

 

The Speech of September 26, 1957

 

Kyrie,

I eulogize the archons of the Pan ethnic Nomismatic Thesaurus and the Ecumenical Trapeza for the orthodoxy of their axioms methods and policies, although there is an episode of cacophony of the Trapeza with Hellas. With enthusiasm we dialogue and synagonize at the synods of our didymous Organizations in which polymorphous economic ideas and dogmas are analyzed and synthesized. Our critical problems such as the numismatic plethora generate some agony and melancholy. This phenomenon is characteristic of our epoch. But, to my thesis we have the dynamism to program therapeutic practices as a prophylaxis from chaos and catastrophe. In parallel a panethnic unhypocritical economic synergy and harmonization in a democratic climate is basic. I apologize for my eccentric monologue. I emphasize my eucharistiria to you Kyrie, to the eugenic and generous American Ethnos and to the organizations and protagonists of the Amphictyony and the gastronomic symposia.

 

IN GREEK

 

Κύριοι,
Ευλογώ τους άρχοντες του Διεθνούς Νομισματικού Ταμείου και την Οικουμενική Τράπεζα για την ορθοδοξία των αξιωμάτων, μεθόδων και πολιτικών, παρά το γεγονός ότι υπάρχει ένα επεισόδιο κακοφωνίας της Τράπεζας με την Ελλάδα. Με ενθουσιασμό διαλεγόμαστε και συναγωνιζόμαστε στις συνόδους των διδύμων Οργανισμών των οποίων τις πολύμορφες οικονομικές ιδέες και δόγματα αναλύουμε και συνθέτουμε. Τα κρίσιμα προβλήματά μας όπως η νομισματική πληθώρα παράγουν κάποια αγωνία και μελαγχολία. Αυτό το φαινόμενο είναι χαρακτηριστικό της εποχής μας. Αλλά, η θέση μου είναι ότι έχουμε τον δυναμισμό να προγραμματίσουμε θεραπευτικές πρακτικές σαν μέτρο προφύλαξης από το χάος και την καταστροφή. Παράλληλα μια παγκόσμια ανυπόκριτως οικονομική συνέργεια και εναρμόνιση σε ένα δημοκρατικό κλίμα είναι βασική. Απολογούμαι για τον εκκεντρικό μου μονόλογο. Εκφράζω με έμφαση την ευχαριστία μου σε εσένα Κύριε, στο ευγενικό και γενναιόδωρο Αμερικανικό Έθνος και στους οργανισμούς και πρωταγωνιστές της Αμφυκτιωνίας και του γαστρονομικού Συμποσίου.»

 

The Speech of October 2, 1959

 

Kyrie,

It is Zeus' anathema on our epoch and the heresy of our economic method and policies that we should agonize the Skylla of numismatic plethora and the Charybdis of economic anaemia. It is not my idiosyncrasy to be ironic or sarcastic but my diagnosis would be that politicians are rather cryptoplethorists. Although they emphatically stigmatize numismatic plethora, they energize it through their tactics and practices. Our policies should be based more on economic and less on political criteria. Our gnomon has to be a metron between economic strategic and philanthropic scopes. In an epoch characterized by monopolies, oligopolies, monopolistic antagonism and polymorphous inelasticities, our policies have to be more orthological, but this should not be metamorphosed into plethorophobia, which is endemic among academic economists. Numismatic symmetry should not antagonize economic acme. A greater harmonization between the practices of the economic and nomismatic archons is basic. Parallel to this we have to synchronize and harmonize more and more our economic and nomismatic policies panethnically. These scopes are more practicable now, when the prognostics of the political end economic barometer are halcyonic. The history of our didymous organization on this sphere has been didactic and their gnostic practices will always be a tonic to the polyonymous and idiomorphous ethnical economies. The geneses of the programmed organization will dynamize these policies. Therefore, I sympathize, although not without criticism one or two themes with the apostles and the hierarchy of our organs in their zeal to program orthodox economic and nomismatic policies. I apologize for having tyrannized you with my Hellenic phraseology.

In my epilogue I emphasize my eulogy to the philoxenous aytochtons of this cosmopolitan metropolis and my encomium to you Kyrie, the stenographers.

 

IN GREEK

 

Κύριοι,

Είναι "Διός ανάθεμα" στην εποχή μας και αίρεση της οικονομικής μας μεθόδου και της οικονομικής μας πολιτικής το ότι θα φέρναμε σε αγωνία την Σκύλλα του νομισματικού πληθωρισμού και τη Χάρυβδη της οικονομικής μας αναιμίας. Δεν είναι στην ιδιοσυγκρασία μου να είμαι ειρωνικός ή σαρκαστικός αλλά η διάγνωσή μου θα ήταν ότι οι πολιτικοί είναι μάλλον κρυπτοπληθωριστές. Αν και με έμφαση στιγματίζουν τον νομισματικό πληθωρισμό, τον ενεργοποιούν μέσω της τακτικής τους και των πρακτικών τους. Η πολιτική μας θα έπρεπε να βασίζεται περισσότερο σε οικονομικά και λιγότερο σε πολιτικά κριτήρια. Γνώμων μας πρέπει να είναι ένα μέτρο μεταξύ οικονομικής στρατηγικής και φιλανθρωπικής σκοπιάς. Σε μια εποχή που χαρακτηρίζεται από μονοπώλια, ολιγοπώλια, μονοπωλιακό ανταγωνισμό και πολύμορφες ανελαστικότητες, οι πολιτικές μας πρέπει να είναι πιο ορθολογιστικές, αλλά αυτό δεν θα έπρεπε να μεταμορφώνεται σε πληθωροφοβία, η οποία είναι ενδημική στους ακαδημαϊκούς οικονομολόγους. Η νομισματική συμμετρία δεν θα έπρεπε να ανταγωνίζεται την οικονομική ακμή. Μια μεγαλύτερη εναρμόνιση μεταξύ των πρακτικών των οικονομικών και νομισματικών αρχόντων είναι βασική. Παράλληλα με αυτό, πρέπει να εκσυγχρονίσουμε και να εναρμονίσουμε όλο και περισσότερο τις οικονομικές και νομισματικές μας πρακτικές πανεθνικώς. Αυτές οι θεωρήσεις είναι πιο εφαρμόσιμες τώρα, όταν τα προγνωστικά του πολιτικού και οικονομικού βαρομέτρου είναι αλκυονίδων ημερών αίθρια. Η ιστορία της δίδυμης οργάνωσης σε αυτήν την σφαίρα είναι διδακτική και οι γνωστικές τους εφαρμογές θα είναι πάντα ένα τονωτικό στις πολυώνυμες και ιδιόμορφες εθνικές οικονομίες. Η γένεση μιας προγραμματισμένης οργάνωσης θα ενισχύσει αυτές τις πολιτικές. Γι' αυτόν το λόγο αντιμετωπίζω με συμπάθεια, αλλά όχι χωρίς κριτική διάθεση, ένα ή δύο θέματα με τους αποστόλους της ιεραρχίας των οργάνων μας στον ζήλο τους να προγραμματίσουν ορθόδοξες οικονομικές και νομισματικές πολιτικές. Απολογούμαι που σας τυράννησα με την ελληνική μου φρασεολογία.

Στον επίλογό μου δίνω έμφαση στην ευλογία μου, προς τους φιλόξενους αυτόχθονες αυτής της κοσμοπολίτικης μητρόπολης καθώς και το εγκώμιό μου προς εσάς, κύριοι στενογράφοι

 

 

GREEK WORDS IN THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE (DICTIONARY)

 

A. abyss, academy, acme = ακμή, δόξα, acrobat, acropolis, aegis, aerial, aerodrome, aeronautics, aeroplane, aesthetic, air, all, allegory, allergy, alphabet, amalgam, ambrosia, amethyst, amnesia, amphibian, amphitheatre, amphora, anachronism, anaemia, anagram, analogy, analysis, anarchism, anathema, anatomy, angel, anomalous, antagonism, anorexia, anthology, anticyclone, aorta, apathetic, aphorism, apocalypse, apologise, apoplexy, apostasy, apostle, apostrophe, apothecary, archaeology, archbishop, archdeacon, archipelago, architect, arctic, aristocratic, arithmetic, aroma, arsenic, asbestos, ascetic, asphyxia, asthma, astrology, astronaut, astronomy, asylum, atheism, athlete, atmosphere, atom, atrophy, aura, austere authentic, autobiography, autocrat, automatic, autograph, autonomous, autopsy, axiom.

B. bacterium, baptism, barbarian, baritone, barometer, basic, basil, bathos, basis, Bible, bibliography, bigamy, biochemistry, biography, biology, biplane, blasphemy, botany.

C. call = καλώ, calando,  callus, calyx, canon, captain, card, cartography, castor, cataclysm, catacombs, catalogue, catalyst, catapult, cataract, catarrh, catastrophe, catechism, category, cathedral, cathode, catholic, caustic, cell, cemetery, cenotaph, centre, ceramic, chameleon, chaos, character, chart, chasm, chimera, chiropractor, choir, chiropodist, chord choreography, chorus, Christ, chromatic, chromosome, chronic, chronicle, chronological, chronometer, chrysalis, chrysanthemum, cinema, cirrhosis, claustrophobia, cleric, climacteric, climate, climax, clinic, code, colossal. Comedy, comic, comma, cosmos, cosmetic, cosmonaut, cost, crisis, criterion, criticism, crypt, crystal, cybernetics, cycle, cyclone, cyclopaedia, cyclotron, cylinder, cymbal, cynic, cyst.

D. deacon = διάκων, decade, Decalogue, delta, demagogic, democracy, demography, demon, demotic, dermatology, diabetes, diabolic, diadem diaeresis (διαλυτικά), diagnosis, diagonal, diagram, dialect, dialogue, diameter, diamond, diaphanous, diaphragm, diatribe, dichotomy, dictator, didactic, diet, dilemma, dinosaur, dioxide, diorama, diphtheria, diphthong, diploma, diplomat, disaster, disc, dolphin, dose, double, draconian, dragon, drama, drastic, dynamic, dynamite, dynasty, dyspepsia, disharmony…

E. eccentric, ecclesiastic, echo, eclectic, eclipse, ecology, economic, ecstasy, ecumenical, ecumenical, eczema, egoism, elastic, electric, elegiac, elephant, elliptic, emblem, embryo, emetic, emphasis, empiric, emporium, encyclopaedia, endemic, energy, enigma, enthrone, enthusiasm, entomology, enzyme, ephemeral, epidemic, epigram, epilepsy, epilogue, epiphany, episode, epistle, epistyle, epitaph, epithet, epitome, epoch, erotic, esoteric, ether, ethic, ethnic, ethos, etymology, eucalyptus, Eucharist, eugenics, eulogize, eunuch, euphemism, euphony, euphoria, Eurasia, eureka, evangelic, exodus, exorcize, exotic……

F.fable=φαύλος-μύθος, fanatic, fantasy, father, frenetic=φρενήρης…..

G. galaxy, gastronomy, general, genesis, genus, genitive = γενική, George, geo, geography, geometry, geocentric, geophysics, geopolitics, geology, geometry, gerontology, gigantic, glycerine, gyro, government, grammatical, gramophone, graphic, gymnasium, Gregorian, gynaecology…..

H. hagiology, halcyon = αλκυών, harmony = αρμονία, hecatomb, hectare, hedonism, hegemony, helicopter, heliotrope, helium, helot, hemisphere, haemorrhage=αιμορραγία, haemorrhoids, hepatitis, heretic, hermaphrodite, hermetic, hermit, hero, heroin, Hesperus, heterodox, heterogeneous, heterosexual, hexagon, hexameter, hierarchy, hieroglyph, hilarious, hippopotamus, hippodrome, history, holocaust, holograph, homeopathy, homogeneous, homonym, homophone, hour = ώρα, (χώρα), horizon, hymen, hyperbole, hypnosis, hypocrisy, hypotenuse, hysteria, homosexual, horde, horizon, hormone, hour, hydrostatics, hydrophobia, hyena, hygiene, hymn, hypertrophy, hypochondria, hypodermic, hypothesis.

I. iamb, icon, iconoclast, idea, ideogram, ideology, idiot, idiolect, idiom, idiosyncrasy, idyllic, ironic, isobar, isosceles, isotope, isthmus.

K. kaleidoscope, kilo, kilocycle, kilogram, kilometre, kilolitre, kinetic, kleptomania…...

l. labyrinth, laconic, laic, lachrymal = δάκρυσμα, larynx, lava, lesbian, lethargy, leukaemia, lexical, lithography, logarithm, logic, logistics, lynx, lyre, lyric …..

M. macrobiotic, macrocosm, magic, magnet, mania, mathematics, mechanic, medal, megacycle, megalith, megalomania, megaphone, megaton, meiosis, melancholia, melodic, melodrama, meningitis, menopause, metabolism, metallic, metallurgy, metamorphosis, metaphor, metaphysics, meteor, meteorite, meteorology, meter, metre, metric, metronome, metropolis, miasma, microbe, microbiology, microelectronics, micrometer, micron, micro organism, microphone, microscope, mimeograph, mimetic, monarch, monastery, monogamy, monogram, monolith, monologue, monomania, monoplane, monopoly, monosyllable, monotheism, monotone, morphology, museum, music, myopia, myriad, mysterious, mystic, myth…..

N. narcissism, narcotic, nautical, nautilus, necromancy, necropolis, nectar, nemesis, Neolithic, neologism, neon, news, nerve, neoplasm, nephritis, neuralgia, neurasthenia, nominative = ïíïìáóôéêÞ, nostalgia, nymph.

O. oasis, ocean, octagon, octane, octave, octogenarian, octopus, ode (ωδή), odyssey, oesophagus, Oedipus complex, orgy, oligarchy, Olympiad, Olympic, onomatopoeia, ontology, ophthalmic, optic (optimist, option), orchestra, orchid, organ, organic, organism, organize, orgasm, orphan, orthodox, orthographic, orthopaedic, osteopath, ouzo, oxide, oxygen. …..

P. pachyderm, pagan=παγανιστής-ειδωλολάτρης, Paleolithic, paleontology, palm, panacea, panchromatic, pancreas, pandemic, pandemonium, panegyric=πανηγυρική ομιλία, panic, panoply, panorama, pantechnicon, pantheism, pantheon, panther, parabola=παραβολή, paradigm, paradox, paragon=παράγων-υπόδειγμα, paragraph, parallel, paralysis, paranoia, paraphrase, paraplegia, parasite, paratyphoid, parenthesis, pariah=παρίας, parody, paroxysm, patter, pathetic, pathology, pathos, patriarch, patriot, patronymic, pedagogue, pederasty, pediatrics, pedometer=βηματομετρητής, pentagon, pentameter, Pentateuch, pentathlon, Pentecost, Pepsis, perihelion=περιήλιο, perimeter, period, peripatetic, periphrasis, periphery, periscope, peristyle, peritonitis, petal=πέταλο άνθους, phalanx, phallus=φαλλός, phantasm, pharmacology, pharmacy, pharynx, phase, phenomenon, philanthropy, philately, philharmonic, philology, philosophy, philter, phlebitis, phlegm, phobia, phoenix, phone, phoneme=φώνημα, phonetic, phonograph, phonology, phosphorous, photo, photoelectric, photogenic, photograph, photolithography, photometer, phrase, phrenology, phthisis, physics, physiognomy, physiology, physiotherapy, planet, plasma, plasma, plastic, plectrum=πλήκτρο, pleonasm, plethora, plural, πλήθος, πληθυντικός, plutocracy, plutonium, pneumatic, pneumonia, pole=πόλος, polemic, policy, police, politics, polyandry, polygamy, polyglot, polygon, polymorphous, polyphony, polypus, polysyllable, polytechnic, polytheism, porn, practice, pragmatism, presbyter, prism, problem, prognosis, programmer, prologue, prophecy, prophylactic, proscenium=προσκήνιο, proselyte, prosody, protagonist, protocol, proton, protoplasm, protozoa, prototype, psalm, pseudonym, psyche, psychedelic, psychic, psychoanalysis, psychology, psychopath, psychosis, psychotherapy, pterodactyl, pylon=πυλώνας, pyramid, pyre=πυρά, pyrites, pyrotechnics=πυροτέχνημα, python…..

Q = k: qoppa – Kappa

R. radio, Reyna, rhyme, rhythm…..

S. sandal, sarcasm, sarcophagus, sardonic, satyr, scene, skeptic, schematic, schism, schizophrenia, scholar, scholastic, school, scoria, scorpion, Scylla, seismic, semantic, semaphore=σηματοφόρος, septicemia=σηψαιμία, serial, sir, solecism=σολοικισμός, sophism, spasm, sphinx, stadium, stalactite, stalagmite, star, static, statistics, stereophonic, stereoscopic, sternum, stigma, stoic, stomach, strategy, stratagem, stratosphere, streptococcus, streptomycin, strophe, sycophant, syllogism, syllable, symbol, symmetry, sympathetic, symphony, symposium, symptom, synagogue, synchronize, syncope, syndrome, synod, synonym, synopsis, syntax, synthesis, syphilis, syringe, system…..

T. tactic, talent, tantalize = Τάνταλος, tartar, tautology, taxidermy, technique, technocracy, technology, telegram, telegraph, telemetry, teleology, telepathy, telephone, telephoto, telescope, theatre, theism, theme, theocracy, theology, theorem, theoretic, theory, theosophy, therapeutic, therapy, thermo, thermal, thermion, thermometer, thermos, thesaurus, thesis, tone, topography, Trapeze, tragedy, tragicomedy, tremor, trigonometry, trilogy, tripod, trireme = τριήρη, triple, trophy, tropic, typhoon, typo, typical, typography, tyranny…..

U. unanimous, anonymous, Uranus, uranium……

V = W = B(β): basic, barbarian..

X. xenophobe, xylophone, xenia, xenon …..

y. hypo - hyper , super = υπό - υπέρ…..

Z. Zeus = Ζευς, zephyr, zeugma, zodiac, zone, zoology…..

 

 

 

2. The Greek language

 

Why the Greek Language by a single vote lost,

from once again, becoming the official international language 

 

Because in the middle of the past (20th) century the interdependence of nations in the sectors of economy, arts & science created the need for international diplomacy and communication with a single common language, and because the most widespread up to then languages, such as English, French, German, Chinese, and others are very difficult to learn, certain scholars proposed the reintroduction of Ancient Greek or Latin as the official International language.

However, this idea was rejected because both of these languages are not being spoken and consequently they do not serve the requirements of an emerging world, while others claimed that this problem would be resolved by the so called artificial languages that had begun to appear.

This rejection however, was a big mistake, because:

1) The Greek language other than its world-wide contribution, it is also the easiest and the only language capable of the most comprehensive transmission of meaning, nearly perfect, as we will see below.

2) The ancient Greek language even though is not been spoken today, nevertheless its continuity exists through modern Greek, which of course, is as rich and beautiful as the ancient Greek, and perhaps a bit beyond. And we are saying this, because the modern Greek language has vastly increased its vocabulary through the creation and addition of new words, and also through simplification by the Greek literary scholars of some of the difficult parts of the ancient Greek grammar, such as (suffixes, noun and adjective cases, elimination of orthographic symbols, etc.), and thus the modern Greek language is simpler and more precise than the ancient Greek.

3) The artificial languages, as we will see below, have been proven to be for simplistic communication and nothing more.

 

It is also noted, that:

1) According to the assumptions of those supporting the artificial language ‘Esperanto’ (see, encyclopedia “SCIENCE & LIFE”, and others), in 1900 the official international English language was being spoken by roughly 10% of the world population. In 1950 11%, while today decreased to 8.5%.  According to some, this reduction is due to the English language and writing being too difficult to learn.

2) It is said that, in a meeting that took place in New York City at the end of the 20th century by renowned economists and arts & science scholars in order to decide which will become for them the official international language, the Greek language lost by a single vote, cast by the  Polish (however of Jewish ancestry) doctor Lazarus Loyntbich Zamenchof (L.L. Zamenchof, 1859 - 1917) or with his philological pseudonym " Doctor Esperanto ", and thus the name of the artificial language Esperanto that he created.

3) The artificial languages were created by selected words that are common in many languages (the Esperanto language is basically based on the vocabulary of languages of Latin origin: English, French, German) and it is assumed with inventive rules of writing and spelling, syntax and conjugation, to facilitate ease of learning. However, these languages are only for simplistic communication, because for a comprehensive transmission of meaning the requirement is a natural language. In addition, the artificial languages are incapable of doing what a natural language appears to be able to do, and because there are very many of them or that they only address specific individuals. 

 

 

The Greek language has an extremely precise expression

and an easy and unlimited reproductive capability of words.

 

Observing the words of the Greek language we see that some are common, simple (single) words while others are compound, i.e.: γράφω, δια-γράφω, εξ-υπ-ακούγεται… and, all to be constituted or made-up (except the: articles, conjunctions and prepositions) from specific component elements, known as: root, prefix, subject, accent (tone), suffix (derivative), and suffix (vocative-case sensitive), whereby each one of them produces a proportional meaning in the word, i.e.: γράφ-ω (= verb, present tense, 1st person), έ-γραφ-ες, (= verb, past tense,  2nd person) , δια-γραφ-ή (compound verb, compound noun, compound adjective)… εξ-έχ-ω, εξ-οχ-ή, έξ-οχ-η..

Stem (subject) is a group of two-character letters (GK. phthongs) which is common in many simple words, as e.g.: the stem subject “γραφ-“ in the words: γραφ-ω, γραφ-ή…The stem subject relates to the sounds of nature and it is either a self-produced sound of some being or processed sound (something like the marble and the statue), i.e., κρα-κρα… > κράζ-ω, τρ… > τρίζω, τρίβω, τριβή vow.. or bouu… > boul, βους

Derivative and vocative suffixes are called the specific two-character letters (GK. phthongs) with which we produce the parts of speech (= the nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.) and also conjugate (we form the singular or plural, as well as the nominative case, possessive case, etc), the combination of the two-character letters (GK. phthongs) with which we reveal or imply the part of speech or the signified type, that is to say what we want to express, e.g.: Stem subject γραφ- and words: γράφ-ω, γραφ-έας, γραφ-είς, γραφ-ή, γραφ-ές, γραφ-είο, γραφ-ικ-ός,ή,ο,  γραφ-ομεν-ος,η,ο….

 

Consequently the Greek words have affinity, causal relation and expression, while simultaneously the Greek language has unlimited possibilities to generate new words.

 

Contrarily, in the other languages basically there are no constituted component elements of words, but a fixed quantity of words whereby the structure of these words (in reality, syntax by apposition) produces the expression (the oral speech).

Observing for example, the vocabulary of the Chinese language (note, somewhere between the Greek and Chinese languages are the other languages) we see that there are all and all 328 simple and indeclinable monosyllable words (similar to the Greek indeclinable words (conjunctions): με, σε, επί, συν, δια, μετά…),  from which with simple composition and a gradual rise-and-decline of the voice in the oral speech crop up the remainder, e.g.: see, the below Chinese words: “πε” = κύπελλο, cup“τσιμ” = χρυσός,η,ο, golden «τσιμ πε» = χρυσό κύπελλο, gold cup, «τσάου» = μέρα, day, «νι τσάου» = καλημέρα, good day, «σιαμ-σουέ» = το  άρωμα (το αρωματόνερο), aroma, «σεν» = ο Θεός,God, «σί-λά» = η Ελλάδα, Greece, «τσούν-κούο» = η Κίνα, China, «μέϊ-κό» = η  Αμερική, America  

 

Observing also the various current European languages (English, French, Spanish, etc.) we basically see that all of them also do not have any linguistic productive code of communication, but that they resemble the Chinese language, that is to say they express with the ‘at apposition syntax’ of words, e.g.: in English: I go, go on,… I love, you love, the love, of love… = ελληνικά πάω, προχωρώ, αγαπώ, αγάπη

 

Hence, we do not have only 328 words, but many more from which some are generated with suffixes, e.g.: in English: Lovely, loveless, lovelies…. and others are Greek or Latin etc, e.g.: Ευρώπη (Europe), τιτάνας (titan), πρόβλημα (problem)…

 

And because in the other languages, more or less, the words do not have constituted component elements, the words are usually composed of a few syllables and without significant productive capability, while in contrast the Greek language in relation to the others has an extremely easy and unlimited productive capability for words.

 

These are the reason for which:

 a) The Greek language has the richer vocabulary than all other,

 b) The other languages are usually borrowing (take) words from other languages (usually from

     Greek and Latin) or create words with Greek and Latin constituted component elements of

     words, e.g.: τηλέφωνο - telephone (tele + phone), πρωτοτυπία > prototype (proto +

     type), photo types….

 

 

The Greek language has

clarity and expression

 

 Because the words of the Greek language are constituted by concrete and specific component elements (root or subject + suffix, etc.) and at the same time each one of them expresses with logical correctness something concrete for the signified type (the prefix - e - expresses action in the past, the suffixes express the part of speech or the signified type, that is to say if the signified type is active or passive, noun or adjective, masculine or feminine, etc., that is why:

A) The Greek words are expressive and absolutely explicit in their meaning and easy to comprehend. Their meaning becomes clear by simply analyzing their constituted compound elements, i.e.: λύν-ω, έ-λυσ-α, γράφ-ω, γραφέ-ας, γραπτ-ός, γραφ-ική..,

For example, the word “verb” in the Greek language in addition to other things with the suffix reveals:

a) Which precisely is the subject of this part of speech or sentence (that is to say if the subject is the speaker or the listener or a third person): αγαπώ,   it means,  I =  the speaker =  subject, αγαπάς  it means, you = the listener = subject, αγαπά, it means,  he, she, it = the third person = subject…,

b) Voice (whether we are active or passive): I love (Yannis…) = active voice & I am loved (by Yannis.) = passive voice.

c) Tense (the present, the past and the future) active or passive: λύν-ω = active now & έλυσ-α = active past tense….  This is something which in order to be said in other languages it must be said together with other words, for example: αγαπώ, ας,α = I love, you love, he-she-it loves… αγαπιέμαι = I am loved by John.

 

B) In the Greek language there is the capability to form many rhetorical and syntactical types of speech for the purpose of correctly expressing or accentuating (emphasizing) the meaning of the speech, for example: The train is driven by George. = subjunctive syntaxes, Ο Γιώργος οδηγεί το τραίνο. = indicative syntaxes,  Ο Γιώργος είναι οδηγός του τραίνου. = imperative syntaxes.

George not only went, but he also hit Aris = George other than he went, he also hit Aris. Instead of simply: George went and hit Aris.

 

 In the Chinese language (somewhere between the Greek and Chinese languages are the other languages), because the words do not have constituted compound elements (suffixes, etc.), they have many meanings or they belong to several parts of speech (they are something like the stems (subjects): γραφ-, καλ-, αγαπ-.. in Greek) and their meaning is arranged:

a) From the intensity of the tone, e.g.: in Chinese: "κιό  (very accentuated) = water & “kio"? (less accentuated) = I ask, something similar to the Greek indeclinable words: η & ή  (In the indeclinable polysyllabic words the meaning is determined proportionally from which syllable is accented, while in the Greek language: seldom &  never…)

b) From the position that the word in question is in the sentence (or from what other word it has before or after). e.g.: in the English word love, where this word (or any other), if it is said with a pronoun it becomes verb: i love = αγαπώ, if it is said with the article “the” it becomes noun: the love = η αγάπη if it is said with the word “of” it becomes a noun in the possessive case: of love = the love of, etc.

 

Hence, that which we reveal with the suffixes, inflection and declension in the Greek language, it is done in the other languages by placing before or after the word in question one other word.

 

This is also the reason that:

 a) In the Greek language if we even utter a single word, we become absolutely comprehensible or explicitly clear, for example:     αγαπ-ώ, αγάπ-η, αγαπ-άς, αγαπ-ά...

 b) In the other languages, in order to become comprehensible or absolutely and explicitly clear, we must speak with complete sentences of the syntactical type: Υ + Ρ + Α or Κ , where Υ = subject, Ρ = verb, Α = object, Κ = predicate: I love you. He loves me. Mary loves books. Love is a good thing.

 

 

Greek is the most euphonic

and easy to pronounce language

 

Comparing the vocabulary, the words of the Greek language with those of other languages we see that Greek words are easier to pronounce and at the same time more beautiful and appealing to the sense of hearing, and that is because:

1) The Greek words are created with constituted compound elements (= the root or the subject + tone (accent) + suffix, etc.) and do not have difficult clusters (that is to say difficult in tone μπ(b), ντ(d), γκ(g),  νμ, νρ, νλ…), since the Greek language through the passage of time has removed or altered them, i.e.: In the Greek words, μπογιατζής  > βογιατζής, γκαρίζω > γκάιδαρος > γάιδαρος, Μπενετία (Benetia > Venetia) >  Βενετία ή Ενετία, συν-μαθητής > συμμαθητής, συν-λέγω > συλλέγω, συν-ράπτω > συρράπτω, τιμάω > τιμώ, τιμάειςτιμάς, Αθηνάα > Αθηνά

In the verbal speech: in Greek, Φέρε τη(ν) μάνα σου και λίγ(α) απ(ό) όλα και θα σ(ε) αγαπώ.

Consequently, the Greek vocabulary (words), the Greek oral speech is a creation that resulted as the timber and the furniture or the Stone and the marble.

Contrarily, in the other languages the words are usually with few syllables and few vowels, something similar that occurs with words in the Greek Language, i.e.: in English: good, max, two, I love, you love…

2) The Greek words are not accented in an accidental or specific syllable from the last syllable (suffix) of words, as it happens with words of other languages resulting in being heard monotonously, but where the part of speech or the type of word determines and harmonizes and thus the tone in Greek helps us with the comprehension of the word while producing beautiful audibility in the verbal speech, e.g., in the Greek polysyllabic words the adjectives are accented in the antepenultimate syllable, the verbs in the penultimate syllable and the nouns in the final syllable: in Greek, έξοχος,η,ο,  άδικος,η,ο, κάθετος,η,ο,  έ-ξοχη, εξο-χή, ε-ξέ-χω, ε-ξέ-χει,… κά-λος, κα-λός, ….

The French language usually accentuates the words in the final syllable, e.g.: pieta... and the English language in the antepenultimate syllable (or in penultimate syllable, if there is no antepenultimate), e.g.: love, anderlect, America…This is the reason for which there is no accentual symbol in the other languages.

 

 

3. THE GREEK SYSTEM OF WRITING

 

 

THE GREEK SYSTEM OF WRITING

(GREEK GRAMMAR, ORTHOGRAPHY)

 

Greek orthography in writing (spelling of words) is produced systematically and according to predefined grammatical rules, contrarily to writing in languages with Latin characters (English, French…) because here the writing is of historical type, that is from Greek or Latin.

 

In the Greek writing system there is the sound of a letter in the word (Gk. Phthongs) and also the two-character sound alike letters (Gk. Phthongs), which have been previously defined along with specific rules on how they are being distinguished and used.

 

    The Greek letters: O(o) = Ω(ω), Ι(ι) =Υ(υ) = Η(η) = ΕΙ(ει) = ΟΙ(οι) =  ΥΙ(υι),   E(ε) = AI(αι) are sound-alike (homophone letters) and are used in Greek writing according to specific orthographic rules (i.e., part of speech, gender - masculine or feminine-, singular or plural case, conjugation – nominative, possessive or objective case of the words) in order to reveal the etymology, that is to say the derivation and precise meaning of the written words or to distinguish and differentiate the sound alike (homophone) words. e.g.: καλός & καλώς, καλή & καλεί & καλοί...

 

The Greek alphabet

 

Letter

Greek name

Pronunciation

Example pronunciation

Αα

άλφα

alpha

as in that, not as in: was, an, and

Ββ

βήτα

vita, not beta

as in vote, not as in: but, bul

Γγ

γάμα

ghama, not gamma

as in y: yet, yataghan,

Not as G in: games, gone…

Δδ

δέλτα

dhelta, not delta

as in th-ere, th-ese..

not as in th-ing or in dog

Εε

έψιλον

epsilon

as ten, pen..

Ζζ

ζήτα

zhita, not zeta

As S in: rise, not as Z in zet

Ηη

ήτα

ita

letters η = i = y, as in  ink

Θθ

θήτα

thita

as in th-ing, not as in: th-at, th-ese

Ιι

ιώτα

iota

Letters i = υ = η

Except in αι = ε, σφαίρα = sfera

Κκ

κάπα

kapa

k

Λλ

λάμδα

Lamdha, not lamba

l

Μμ

μι

mi,

m

Νν

νι

ni

n

Ξξ

ξι

xi

x = ks

Οο

όμικρον

omicron

as in: hot, not… not as in: come, one,

Ππ

πι

pi

p

Ρρ

ρο

rho

r

Σσ & ς

σίγμα

sighma

s

Ττ

ταυ

Taf

t

Υυ

ύψιλον

ipsilon, not upsilon

Lettesr υ = η = ι.

Except in: αυ, ευ, ου = av/af, ev/ef, U(u)

Φφ

φι

fi

As f, ph in: fatal, philosophy

Χχ

χι

chi

As in: who, chronos..

Ψψ

ψι

psi

as in lips

Ωω

ωμέγα

omegha, not omega

Letters o = ω

 

 

In the Greek writing system, ancient and modern:

1) The first sound character (Gk.phthong) of the Greek alphabetic words ά-λφα, β-ήτα... reveals which letter this sound character (Gk. Phthong) represents, i.e.: λ-άνδα (“landha”) = the sound character (phthong) [λ] = [l]. 

This is something that does not occur in writing with Latin characters in (English, French... ). See for example the letter A (a) of the English alphabet. It is pronounced here as e+i and in the words: America, and, tape….., as a, e, ai..

2) In Greek there are the homophone letters, e.g.: O & Ω, Η & Υ & Ι…. This is something that does not exist in any other language.

3) In Greek all letters represent only one sound character (phthong) and it is the same throughout the process of writing. Even if a word is spelled orthographically incorrect, it still is pronounced correctly, i.e:

Greek:  «Αύριο θα πάμε εκδρομή στην Αθήνα».

Here the letter A(a) is always pronounced as [α] and not [ε] or [o]..., as it happens in English).

Greek incorrect spelling: <<ίνε καλί γινέκα

        Correct spelling: Είναι καλή γυναίκα.)>>.

This is something that does not occur in the English, French, German and others in their spelling and pronunciation process.  See for example the English word: go where the letter O(o) is pronounced as “ou”, and similarly the English word “idea”, pronounced «αϊntία», where we have 4 letters and 6 sound characters (phthongs).

4) In Greek there are letters for all sound characters (phthongs). That is for all the consonants and for all vowels, (see the letters of the Greek spelling system instead of the alphabet).

This is something that does not occur in English or French, German, etc. spelling process. In English, for example, writing the phthongs (sounds of words) <<th-is>> and <<th-ing>> they are written with the same letters, the letters TH(th), but in Greek spelling there are two distinctly different letters, the letters Θ(θ) and Δ(δ, i.e.:  Θεός, Δίας… The same occurs and with the letters Γ(γ), etc.

5) Some homophone sound characters (phthongs) consist of a single letter, while others consist of more than one, i.e.: O & Ω, Y & H & I, AI & ai… These homophone letters are used to distinguish and differentiate the type of word, as for examples: λίρα & λύρα, καλό & καλώ.. For more information see the homophone letters.

In this situation, in English spelling some homophone words have useless (not pronounced) letters to differentiate from each other, as for examples: to & t(w)o & to(o), rit(e) & (w)rit(e) & ri(g)t(h. Similarly:sent & cent & scent, pare & pair & pear, boy & buoy,  no & know, sail & sale, grown & groan, war &  wore, side &  sighed, made & maid, night & knight, soared & surd, hole & whole, morning & mourning .....

6) In Greek, all spelling of words is done through the sound characters (phthongs). All the letters in the Greek spelling of words are pronounced the same throughout the written content of words, except the letter Y(υ) in:AΥ(αυ), ΕΥ(ευ), ΥΙ(υι), OY(oy)… i.e.:

Greek spelling: Σήμερα είναι Κυριακή και εμείς δεν έχουμε σχολείο. (Here the letter a is always pronounced as a, the letter e as e… etc).

Pronunciation: Simera ine kiriaki ke emis then ehume sxolio.

Meaning: Today is Sunday and we don’t have school.

This is something that does not occur in English or French, German... written word.  For example, in the English words: go, come, one, more, to... where the letter O(o) is pronounced sometimes “o” and sometimes “u” or “a” or “ou”,...

7) In English the sound letter (phthong) U(u) is written with the two digit letter OY(oυ) = U(u).

8) The letter H(h) is pronounced "h, ch, wh" as in "Bach, home, who”… Similarly "ch" in "chair, Christ”

9) The Greek letters: B(β), Γ(γ), Δ(δ) are different from the Latin Β(b), D(d), G(g) =  MP(mp) NT(nt) NC(nc). The Latin letters B(b), D(d), G(g) are abbreviations of the Greek MP(μπ), NT(ντ), ΓK(γκ). In Latin spelling, we place the letters MP(mp), NT(nt), NK(nk/nc) in the compound words and the letters B(b), D(d), G(g) in the simple words: com-plex > complex & Babylon, con-tact & dactyl, in-correctly, Booboo = μπουμπού, Goal = γκολ, double = νταμπλ.

10) The Greek letter sigma Σ(s,σ) has two distinct shapes. When written at the end of a word, it is written like this:Σ(ς). If it occurs anywhere else within a word, it is written like this: Σ(σ). στύλος = ΣΤΥΛΟΣ, pronounced “stilos”. Whe

11) The Greek letter Y(υ)  is pronounced some times as i as in "in" and some times as v or f (for more on this see below).

12) In Greek spelling each sound character (phthong) is written with a specific corresponding letter. When we read a written word, each letter is pronounced separately and clearly, that is, all letters are pronounced as they appear in the Greek alphabet: άλφα, βήτα, γάμα…, i.e.:  καλό = k(apa) + a(lfa) + l(andha) + ό.

 

In the Greek word Πατέρας:

We have the phthongs and letters Π,α,τ,ε,ρ,α,ς.  

Put the sounds together syllable by syllable:

Π and α = Πα - sounds pa +  τ and ε  = τε  - sounds te  +  ρ and α and ς = ρας - sounds ras

All together it is "pateras", which means "Father".

 

In the Greek word Ουρανός:

We have the phthongs and letters ου,ρ,α,ν,ο,ς.

Put the sounds together syllable by syllable:

ου = two-character sound letter = u  as in put, Lou,

ρ and a = ρα - sounds ra

ν and ο and ς = νος - sounds nos

All together it is "(o)uranos", which means "sky"

 

 

The Methodology (techic)

of the Greek Writing System

 

1. In Greek spelling, ancient and modern, there are letters for all the different sound characters (phthongs), and each different sounding character (phthong) is written with a specific letter, as for example the consonant phthong [m] with the letter M(μ), the vowel phthong [a] with the letter A(α) and so on.. (See Letters & phthongs)

You hear the consonant phthong [m] and write the letter M(μ). similarly, you see the letter M (μ) and you write the consonant phthong [m].

You hear or pronounce the word “μάνα” (= mother), which consists of the phthongs (sounds, homophones) “μ-α-ν-α” (= m,a,n,a), and then you write the letters “μάνα” (= m,a,n,a). You see the letters of the word «μάνα» and pronounce the phthongs (sounds, homophones)  μ/ά/ν/α (m/a/n/a)”.

     

In other words, the word «μάνα» is written this way, because the consonant (phthong) [μ] has been grammatically defined to be written with the letter Μ(μ), the phthong [α] with the letter A(α)....etc.  Consequently, the word “μάνα” is being read this way, because the designated letter M (μ) produces the phthong  [μ] etc.

 

English: “I am tailor”

= In Greek it is pronounced and written: «άϊ αμ τέϊλορ»

= using Greek words: Εγώ είμαι ράφτης. 

 

2. In the Greek spelling methodology we always denote the accented syllable by using the accentuation symbol (΄): μη-τέ-ρα. We place the accent symbol (‘) on top of the vowel letter in the stressed syllable. For example in the syllable «μά-» of the word μάνα  (= mama, mother). For additional information, see the topic on the «accent symbol».

 

3. In the Greek spelling methodology there are the homophone (same sound) letters: o & ω = (o), ε & αι = [ ε], η & υ & ι & ει & οι & υι = [ι]...  and each word is written with one of these homophones letters according to its etymology (= according to its part of speech and type of word: gender, number, case... and derivation or composition) in order to reveal the meaning of the word and also to distinguish the homophone (same sound) words, i.e.: καλώ & καλό, κουτί & κουτή & κουτοί, φύλο & φύλλο,...

The orthographic rules are as follows:

The suffix (last syllable) of verbs is written with –ω: σήκω, καλώ, φοιτώ, λέγω...

The suffix of adverbs is written with –ω(ς): καλώς, κακώς... παρακάτω, άνω, κάτω

The suffix (last syllable) of nouns and adjectives feminine gender is written with –η: Καλή, κακή,

 Νίκη, νίκη...

The suffix of nouns and adjectives masculine gender with –οs: Καλός, κακός, Νίκος