GREEK WRITING

SYSTEM

 

Research - study

By A. KRASSANAKIS

 

Translation in English

By Art Perdikis

 

image002

 

- Greek writing is the most easiest and perfect in the world.

- It writes not only like a microphone, but more better!

- It can be learned in 30 minutes!

 

 

ΑΤΗΕΝΣ 2009

 

SBN 960 – 85089 – 2 - 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1st

ALPHABET, TECHIC  AND

MARKS OF GREEK WRITING

 

 

1. The methodology (techic) of the Greek Writing System

 

1. In Greek spelling, ancient and modern, there are letters for all the different sound characters (phthongs), and each different sounding character (phthong) is written with a specific letter, as for example the consonant phthong [m] with the letter M(μ), the vowel phthong [a] with the letter A(α) and so on.. (See Letters & phthongs)

You hear the consonant phthong [m] and write the letter M(μ). similarly, you see the letter M (μ) and you write the consonant phthong [m].

You hear or pronounce the word “μάνα” (= mother), which consists of the phthongs (sounds, homophones) “μ-α-ν-α” (= m,a,n,a), and then you write the letters “μάνα” (= m,a,n,a). You see the letters of the word «μάνα» and pronounce the phthongs (sounds, homophones)  μ/ά/ν/α (m/a/n/a)”.

      

In other words, the word «μάνα» is written this way, because the consonant (phthong) [μ] has been grammatically defined to be written with the letter Μ(μ), the phthong [α] with the letter A(α)....etc.  Consequently, the word “μάνα” is being read this way, because the designated letter M (μ) produces the phthong  [μ] etc.

 

English: “I am tailor”

= In Greek it is pronounced and written: «άϊ αμ τέϊλορ»

= using Greek words: Εγώ είμαι ράφτης. 

 

2. In the Greek spelling methodology we always denote the accented syllable by using the accentuation symbol (΄): μη-τέ-ρα. We place the accent symbol (‘) on top of the vowel letter in the stressed syllable. For example in the syllable «μά-» of the word μάνα  (= mama, mother). For additional information, see the topic on the «accent symbol».

 

3. In the Greek spelling methodology there are the homophone (same sound) letters: o & ω = (o), ε & αι = [ ε], η & υ & ι & ει & οι & υι = [ι]...  and each word is written with one of these homophones letters according to its etymology (= according to its part of speech and type of word: gender, number, case... and derivation or composition) in order to reveal the meaning of the word and also to distinguish the homophone (same sound) words, i.e.: καλώ & καλό, κουτί & κουτή & κουτοί, φύλο & φύλλο,...

The orthographic rules are as follows:

The suffix (last syllable) of verbs is written with –ω: σήκω, καλώ, φοιτώ, λέγω...

The suffix of adverbs is written with –ω(ς): καλώς, κακώς... παρακάτω, άνω, κάτω

The suffix (last syllable) of nouns and adjectives feminine gender is written with –η: Καλή, κακή,

 Νίκη, νίκη...

The suffix of nouns and adjectives masculine gender with –οs: Καλός, κακός, Νίκος...

The suffix of nouns and adjectives neuter gender with –ο,ι: σύκο, κακό, ελαφρό... τυρί, φιλί...

 

Phonetic (oral speech): “kalό, sίko, άporo, άdhiko.....

& spelling the Greek words:

καλ-ό, σύκ-ο, άπορ-ο, άδικ-ο,...(the  suffix of the neuter gender is  written with the –ο )

 & καλ-ώ, σήκ-ω, απορ-ώ, αδικ-ώ,...(the suffix of the verbs is written with the letter  -ω)

 

In Greek writing, if you see a written word with the letter –ω (as a suffix, last syllable), it signifies that this word is a verb: καλ-ώ, -είς.., with the letter -o it signifies that this word is a neuter noun or adjective: καλ-ό, σύκο.., with the letter -η it signifies that this word is a feminine noun or adjective: καλ-ή, καλ-ής..... etc.

 

In examining the letters in words we notice that many of them are homophones (similar voice, same sound letters) caused by either phonological variation or their changes or inflection through the passage of time (because of the homophonic suffixes): καλ(έ)-ω > καλώ, καλ(έ)-εις > καλείς, καλ(έ)-ει > καλεί...  (= verb, ρήμα) & καλός, καλή, καλό (= adjective, επίθετο ) & καλός > καλοί (plural)...

Moreover, in further examining these same sounding letters in words, we notice that these words don’t belong to the same part of speech or gender or type of words.

In addition, the Greek spelling orthography has for some phthongs more than one letter (see, o & ω, η & υ & ι...), so that by spelling a word in a specific part of speech or type (gender, case, tense, etc.) with some homophone letters we can distinguish and differentiate between the same sounding words and it also helps us in determining the etymology and meaning of the word in question. For instance:

Phonetically:      καλός, καλί, καλίς, καλό..”

= In Greek spellingg (Orthography):

καλώ, καλείς, καλεί...  (With –ω, if it is verb)

καλό, καλή, καλής, ...    (With – ο,η, if it is adjective- neuter or feminine gender)

καλώς (With –ως, if it is adverb) & καλός (with –ος  if it is adjective - masculine)

καλή (With –η, if it is singular)  &  καλοί  (with –οι,  if it is plural)

 

Similarly: “ίλι” = ύλη & ίλη & ήλοι & είλη, “ίδι” = είδη & ήδη & Ίδη, «λίπι» = λύπη & λείπει & λίπη, «φίλο» = φίλο & φύλο & φύλλο, «λίρα»= λίρα & λύρα, «κουτί» = κουτί & κουτοί & κουτή...

The above examples show us that whenever there are no homophone letters, we are not able to know the precise meaning of what we write. Hence, because of the same sounding words we are not able to distinguish the part of speech, whether a word is a noun or verb, masculine or feminine, plural or singular. etcr.

 

Rules in Greek Grammar/Orthography:

A. Compound words are written according to their component parts (in the simple words), in order to reveal their composition: σύν-θεση, παρά-μετρος,.... As in English: under-stand...

B. Derivative words are written according to their root or to their original word, in order to reveal the root or the original word: Κρήτ-η... (Root word) > κρητ-ικός, κρητ-ική... (derivative words, with the letter –η-) & κρίση, κριτ-ής... (root words) > κριτ-ικός, κριτ-ική... (derivative words, with the letter –ι-)... As in English: stand > standing, love > lovely...

G. Derivatives & compound words are written according to their phonetic variations (phthong variations), in order to reveal the correct pronunciation and the original words:

ν + μ, ν, λ, ρ = μμ,νν,λλ,ρρ: συν-μαθητής > συμμαθητής, παν-λαϊκός > παλλαϊκός), συν-ράπτω > συρράπτω...

π,β,φ + μ = μμ: βλέπμα > βλέμμα (βλέπω-μα) , οπή > όπμα – όμμα ή μάτι, γράφμα (γράφω-μα >  – γράμμα, ....

ν + κ,γ,χ = γκ,γγ,γχ: συν-γενής > συγγενής, συν-καιρός > σύγκαιρος, συν-χαίρω > συγχαίρω,...

,........................................ (For more see below.)

 

4. Declinable words are written according to their part of speech and type of word (= type = gender, singular or plural, nominative or possessive or objective case, tense) to indicate:

Masculine gender with –o,η: καλός, σοφός, Νίκος, Μανώλης...

Neuter gender with –o, ι: καλό, σύκο, σοφό... τυρί, φιλί...

The verb with –ω, ει: καλώ, καλεί, καλείς, φοιτώ, αδικώ...

Masculine plural: καλ-οί, κακ-οί

Singular feminine with  –η: καλή, καλής, νίκη, τιμή, ... 

,.............................  (For more see below.)

 

Consequently, Greek spelling is phonetic as well as simultaneously etymological. It is writingspelling exactly what we say (pronounce) with the vowels and consonants (phthongs: o, a, t....) and simultaneously what we mean etymologically, part of speech, type (= gender, singular or plural, case or tense and derivation or composition of the word, using accordingly and proportionally) the same sound letters O(ο) & Ω(ω) = [ο], Ε(ε) & ΑΙ(αι) = [ε], Η(η) & Υ(υ) & Ι(ι)... (For more see “homophone letters”).

phonetics: “kalό, sίko, άporo, άdhiko...

& spelling with the Greek characters:

καλ-ό, σύκ-ο, άπορ-ο, άδικ-ο,..., if we mean the neuter gender (the neuter gender is written with the suffix letter –ο )

καλ-ώ, σήκ-ω, απορ-ώ, αδικ-ώ,..., if we mean verbs (verbs are written with the suffix letter -ω).

 

 

2. The Greek alphabet

 

 

Alphabet is the name given those letters (characters): A(α), B(β)... by which the phthongs (sounds of words) are represented in Greek writing. The following 24 capital and small letters and in the following order and naming (model words):

 

The Greek alphabet

 

Letter

Greek name

Pronunciation

Example pronunciation

Αα

άλφα

alpha

as in that, not as in: was, an, and

Ββ

βήτα

vita, not beta

as in vote, not as in: but, bul

Γγ

γάμα

ghama, not gamma

as in y: yet, yataghan,

Not as G in: games, gone…

Δδ

δέλτα

dhelta, not delta

as in th-ere, th-ese..

not as in th-ing or in dog

Εε

έψιλον

epsilon

as ten, pen..

Ζζ

ζήτα

zhita, not zeta

As S in: rise, not as Z in zet

Ηη

ήτα

ita

letters η = i = y, as in  ink

Θθ

θήτα

thita

as in th-ing, not as in: th-at, th-ese

Ιι

ιώτα

iota

Letters i = υ = η

Except in αι = ε, σφαίρα = sfera

Κκ

κάπα

kapa

k

Λλ

λάμδα

Lamdha

l

Μμ

μι

mi,

m

Νν

νι

ni

n

Ξξ

ξι

xi

x = ks

Οο

όμικρον

omicron

as in: hot, not… not as in: come, one,

Ππ

πι

pi

p

Ρρ

ρο

rho

r

Σσ & ς

σίγμα

sighma

s

Ττ

ταυ

Taf

t

Υυ

ύψιλον

ipsilon

Lettes υ = η = ι.

Except in: αυ, ευ, ου = av/af, ev/ef, U(u)

Φφ

φι

fi

As f, ph in: fatal, philosophy

Χχ

χι

chi

As in: who, chronos..

Ψψ

ψι

psi

as in lips

Ωω

ωμέγα

omegha

Letters o = ω

 

 

In Greek alphabet:

1) The word <<alphabet>> consist of the Greek alphabetical (models) words: άλφα + βήτα.

2) The form of the Greek letters: A(α), B(β),...  shows us the position of the mouth, lips etc, i.e. the form B(β) indicates close lips with full of air, the form O(o) shows us mouth, tongue, larynx like a pipe, the form Λ(λ) = tongue up and introvert etc.(For more see in Greek section.)

3) The whole word of models words “άλφα, βήτα”...  declares the pattern of writing form or pronunciation of its letter (To day, due to all those linguistic changes and practical improvement of the original alphabet, this does not precisely).  The Greek word «σίγμα» mean pronounce like [s…]. The Greek word  «λάμδα» mean form (shape) like “nipper, pinchers”), etc  (See more in Greek Section). Something that not occur in writing with Latin characters (English, French... )..

4) The letter sigma Σ(s,σ) have two forms. When written at the end of a word, it is written like this:Σ(ς). If it occurs anywhere else, it is written like this: Σ(σ). στύλος = ΣΤΥΛΟΣ, pronunciation “stilos”. When sigma is a capital letter it is always "Σ." When it is a small letter and is the last letter of the word, then it is "ς" otherwise it is "σ"

5) There are not long and sort (small) vowel letters as it happens in Arabic, Indian etc writings.

6) The Greek letters consonants Ξ(ξ), Ψ(ψ) = Latin X(x), PS(ps) are abbreviation. They are called “double”, because they virtually represent the consonant combination KS and PS respectively. These are like X(x) in latin

 

In Greek writing system:

1) The letter   Y(υ)  pronounced some times as i as in "in" and some times as v or f (for more see later).

2) We write all the phthongs with each letter of them. When we see-read a written word we pronounced separately and clearly all the letters and as show us the Greek model (alphabet) words: άλφα, βήτα, γάμα…, i.e.:  καλό = k(apa) + a(lfa) + l(amdha) + ό(micro).

 

Greek word Πατέρας:

We have the phthongs and letters Π,α,τ,ε,ρ,α,ς.  

Put the sounds together syllable by syllable:

Π and α = Πα - sounds pa +  τ and ε  = τε  - sounds te  +  ρ and α and ς = ρας - sounds ras

All together it is "pateras" which means, "Father".

 

Greek word Ουρανός:

We have the phthongs and letters ου,ρ,α,ν,ο,ς.

Put the sounds together syllable by syllable:

ου = two-digits letter for  sounds u  as in put, Lou,

ρ and a = ρα - sounds ra

ν and ο and ς = νος - sounds nos

All together it is "(o)uranos" which means "sky"

 

 

In the Greek writing system, ancient and modern:

1) The first sound character (Gk.phthong) of the Greek alphabetic words ά-λφα, β-ήτα... reveals which letter this sound character (Gk. Phthong) represents, i.e.: λ-άνδα (“landha”) = the sound character (phthong) [λ] = [l]. 

This is something that does not occur in writing with Latin characters in (English, French... ). See for example the letter A (a) of the English alphabet. It is pronounced here as e+i and in the words: America, and, tape….., as a, e, ai..

2) In Greek there are the homophone letters, e.g.: O & Ω, Η & Υ & Ι…. This is something that does not exist in any other language.

3) In Greek all letters represent only one sound character (phthong) and it is the same throughout the process of writing. Even if a word is spelled orthographically incorrect, it still is pronounced correctly, i.e:

Greek:  «Αύριο θα πάμε εκδρομή στην Αθήνα».

Here the letter A(a) is always pronounced as [α] and not [ε] or [o]..., as it happens in English).

Greek incorrect spelling: <<ίνε καλί γινέκα

        Correct spelling: Είναι καλή γυναίκα.)>>.

This is something that does not occur in the English, French, German and others in their spelling and pronunciation process.  See for example the English word: go where the letter O(o) is pronounced as “ou”, and similarly the English word “idea”, pronounced «αϊntία», where we have 4 letters and 6 sound characters (phthongs).

4) In Greek there are letters for all sound characters (phthongs). That is for all the consonants and for all vowels, (see the letters of the Greek spelling system instead of the alphabet).

This is something that does not occur in English or French, German, etc. spelling process. In English, for example, writing the phthongs (sounds of words) <<th-is>> and <<th-ing>> they are written with the same letters, the letters TH(th), but in Greek spelling there are two distinctly different letters, the letters Θ(θ) and Δ(δ, i.e.:  Θεός, Δίας… The same occurs and with the letters Γ(γ), etc.

5) Some homophone sound characters (phthongs) consist of a single letter, while others consist of more than one, i.e.: O & Ω, Y & H & I, AI & ai… These homophone letters are used to distinguish and differentiate the type of word, as for examples: λίρα & λύρα, καλό & καλώ.. For more information see the homophone letters.

In this situation, in English spelling some homophone words have useless (not pronounced) letters to differentiate from each other, as for examples: to & t(w)o & to(o), rit(e) & (w)rit(e) & ri(g)t(h. Similarly:sent & cent & scent, pare & pair & pear, boy & buoy,  no & know, sail & sale, grown & groan, war &  wore, side &  sighed, made & maid, night & knight, soared & surd, hole & whole, morning & mourning .....

6) In Greek, all spelling of words is done through the sound characters (phthongs). All the letters in the Greek spelling of words are pronounced the same throughout the written content of words, except the letter Y(υ) in:AΥ(αυ), ΕΥ(ευ), ΥΙ(υι), OY(oy)… i.e.:

Greek spelling: Σήμερα είναι Κυριακή και εμείς δεν έχουμε σχολείο. (Here the letter a is always pronounced as a, the letter e as e… etc).

Pronunciation: Simera ine kiriaki ke emis then ehume sxolio.

Meaning: Today is Sunday and we don’t have school.

This is something that does not occur in English or French, German... written word.  For example, in the English words: go, come, one, more, to... where the letter O(o) is pronounced sometimes “o” and sometimes “u” or “a” or “ou”,...

7) In English the sound letter (phthong) U(u) is written with the two digit letter OY(oυ) = U(u).

8) The letter H(h) is pronounced "h, ch, wh" as in "Bach, home, who”… Similarly "ch" in "chair, Christ”

9) The Greek letters: B(β), Γ(γ), Δ(δ) are different from the Latin Β(b), D(d), G(g) =  MP(mp) NT(nt) NC(nc). The Latin letters B(b), D(d), G(g) are abbreviations of the Greek MP(μπ), NT(ντ), ΓK(γκ). In Latin spelling, we place the letters MP(mp), NT(nt), NK(nk/nc) in the compound words and the letters B(b), D(d), G(g) in the simple words: com-plex > complex & Babylon, con-tact & dactyl, in-correctly, Booboo = μπουμπού, Goal = γκολ, double = νταμπλ.

10) The Greek letter sigma Σ(s,σ) has two distinct shapes. When written at the end of a word, it is written like this:Σ(ς). If it occurs anywhere else within a word, it is written like this: Σ(σ). στύλος = ΣΤΥΛΟΣ, pronounced “stilos”. Whe

11) The Greek letter Y(υ)  is pronounced some times as i as in "in" and some times as v or f (for more on this see below).

12) In Greek spelling each sound character (phthong) is written with a specific corresponding letter. When we read a written word, each letter is pronounced separately and clearly, that is, all letters are pronounced as they appear in the Greek alphabet: άλφα, βήτα, γάμα…, i.e.:  καλό = k(apa) + a(lfa) + l(andha) + ό.

 

In the Greek word Πατέρας:

We have the phthongs and letters Π,α,τ,ε,ρ,α,ς.  

Put the sounds together syllable by syllable:

Π and α = Πα - sounds pa +  τ and ε  = τε  - sounds te  +  ρ and α and ς = ρας - sounds ras

All together it is "pateras", which means "Father".

 

In the Greek word Ουρανός:

We have the phthongs and letters ου,ρ,α,ν,ο,ς.

Put the sounds together syllable by syllable:

ου = two-character sound letter = u  as in put, Lou,

ρ and a = ρα - sounds ra

ν and ο and ς = νος - sounds nos

All together it is "(o)uranos", which means "sky"

 

 

3. Diference among Greek and writing with latin charactrers (English, German, Holand etc writing)

 

1. Greek writing is made with system, something that not occur in writing with Latin characters (English, French...), because here we have historical writing, as we see later.

In Greek writing system in one hand we have the phthongs (sound) of words) and in other hand we have Letters (one or more for each phthong) and rules for use the homophones letters. The Greek letters: O(o) = Ω(ω), Ι(ι) =Υ(υ) = Η(η) = ΕΙ(ει) = ΟΙ(οι) =  ΥΙ(υι),   E(ε) = AI(αι) are homophone letters and used in Greek writing according to rules (according to part of speech, the gender, the number and the case of the words) in order to facilitate (suggest) the etymology of the written words or to distinguishing homophone words. e.g.: καλός & καλώς, καλή & καλεί & καλοί...

(More see later)

2. The Latin writing (the writing of ancient Rome) is base on Greek; it is like Greek, see for example:

Greek: μαθηματικά, συλλαβή, Γραικία, Φοινίκη…

Latin: mathematica, Syllaba, Graecia, Phoenicia..

In Latin writing there are not the letters homophone letters H, Ω, the letters Θ, Δ, Γ  (= as in thing, as in that as in yet), the accent marc (‘) and the diaresis marc (:), because these was made in Greece after the emigration of Greek alphabet in Italy.

3. The writing with Latin alphabet (English, French… writing) is historical writing. In this writing some words are written by phthongs (by sounds of words), see for example in English: on, it, last, test….. The other words are written like Greek or Latin (ancient Roma), although here their pronunciation are different, see for examples:

Greek: πρόβλημα, τιτάν(ας), Γεωργία, Ευρώπη, ιδέα, τυπώ(νω),  Ολυμπία,  φιλοσοφία, τηλέφωνο...... 

& English: problem (“πρόμπλεμ»), titan(«ταϊταν»),  Europe («γιούροπ»), idea («αϊντία»), type  («τάϊπ»), Olympia, philosophy, telephone,... 

Greek: ακτίς, Γεωργιανός, Συριανός, Λατίνος...

& French: action («αξόν»), Georgien («ζεορζάν»), Syrien («σιριάν»), Latin («λατάν»)...

Latin: cluba (κλούμπα -κλούβα), cupa (κούπα), America, pluς (πλους), imperial («ιμπέριαλ»), lina («λίνα»), douo > double («ντουπλέ»)….

& English: club («κλάμπ»), cup («κaπ»), America, plus («πλας»), imperial («ιμπίριαλ»), line («λάϊν»), double ("ντάμπλ")….

4. In Greek writing system, ancient and modern:

1) The first phthong of model words ά-λφα, β-ήτα... show us which phthong their letter represent, i.e.: λ-άμδα (“lamdha”) = the phthong [λ] = [l]. 

Something that not occur in writing with Latin characters (English, French... ). See for example the letter A(a) of English alphabet. It pronounced here as e+i and in the words: America, and, tape….., as a, e, ai..

2) There are homophone letters, e.g.: O & Ω, Η & Υ & Ι…. Something does not exist in any other writing.

3) All letters represent only one phthong (one sound of words) and the same in the general written speech. Even if we write a word orthographically wrongly, we pronounce it correct, see:

Greek:  «Αύριο θα πάμε εκδρομή στην Αθήνα».

            (Here the letter A(a) is always pronounced as [α] and not [ε] or [o]..., as it happen in English)

Greek wrong: <<ίνε καλί γινέκα

            (Correct: Είναι καλή γυναίκα.)>>.

Something that does not occur in English or French, German... written speech.  See for example the English word: go where the letter O(o) is pronounced as “ou”,... See and the English word “idea”, pronounce «αϊntία», where we have 4 letters and 6 phthongs

4) There are letters for all phthongs (sounds of words). For all consonant and for all vowels, see “letter of Greek writing system”, not in “alphabet”.

Something that does not occur in English or French, German... written speech. In English, for example, writing the phthongs (sounds of words) <<th-is>> and <<th-ing>> are written with the same letter, the letter TH(th), but in Greek scipt there are two different letters, the letters Θ(θ) and Δ(δ):  Θεός, Δίας.. Same happen and with the letter Γ(γ) etc

5) Some phthongs have not a letter, but more, see for example: O & Ω, Y & H & I, AI & AI… We need-use these letters to distinguish homophones (same sounds) words, see for examples: λίρα & λύρα, καλό & καλώ.. For more see homophones letter.

In this case in English writing some homophone words have useless (not pronounced) letters to distinguish each other, see for examples: to & t(w)o & to(o), rit(e) & (w)rit(e) & ri(g)t(h. Same:  sent & cent & scent,    pare & pair & pear,   boy & buoy,  no & know, sail & sale, grown & groan, fought & fort, war &  wore, side &  sighed, made & maid, night & knight, soared &   surd, hole & whole, morning & mourning .....

6) We write-read by phthongs-letters. All letters in Greek writing pronounced the same in all written speech, except the letter Y(υ) in groups AΥ(αυ), ΕΥ(ευ), ΥΙ(υι), OY(oy)… (For more see lately), i.e.:

Greek writing: Σήμερα είναι Κυριακή και εμείς δεν έχουμε σχολείο. (Here the letter a is always pronounced as a, the letter e as e… etc).

Pronunciation: Simera ine kiriaki ke emis then ehume sxolio.

Mean: To day is Sunday and we don’t have school.

Something that does not occur in English or French, German... written speech.  See for example the English words: go, come, one, more, to... where the letter O(o) is pronounced sometimes “o and sometimes “u” or “a” or “ou”,...

7) The phthong (sound of words) U(u) is written with the two digit letter OY(oυ) = U(u). For more see “digital letters”. 

8) The letter X(x) pronounced "h, ch, wh" as in "Bach, home, who”… It is like "ch" in "chair, Christ”

9) The letters: B(β), Γ(γ), Δ(δ) are different from Latin Β(b), D(d), G(g) =  MP(mp) NT(nt) NC(nc). The Latin letters B(b), D(d), G(g) are abbreviation = Greek MP(μπ), NT(ντ), ΓK(γκ). In Latin writing, we put the letters MP(mp), NT(nt), NK(nk/nc) in the compound words and the letters B(b), D(d), G(g) in the simple words: con-plex > complex & Babylon, con-tact & dactyl, in-correct... Booboo = μπουμπού, Goal = γκολ, double = νταμπλ.

 

 

4. The phthongs and the syllables of words

 

Syllable in the Greek writing is called the smallest (least) piece in which a word can be cut and pronounced in achieving a comfortable acoustic apprehension. I.e: α-έ-ρας, καλ-ός … (English: mo-ther)

 

Important note:

1) Every vowel in a word, alone or combined with a consonant before or alter it makes a syllable, i.e.: ο α-ε-τος, εν, εκ, κε-νός… because the consonants are not possible to be pronounced by themselves (separately); they are always accompanied by a vowel. That is why, in Greek, consonants are called «σύμφωνα = συν-φωνή» > Latin “con-sonors” > English “consonants” (agreeing, harmonized, according) or (along with the sound). I.e.: εν, νέ-ος, τον, ε-γέ-λα-σε..

Consonant syllable is called the syllable in which there is one or more consonant (a syllable containing vowel + consonant or consonants), e.g.: εκ, εν,την, βους, κε-νός..

Vowel syllable is called the syllable in which there is not consonant (a syllable containing a vowel only), e.g.: o α-έ-(ρας), η ω-(ραί)-α..

2) Συλλαβή > syllable in Greek’ derived from συν-λαβή, συν-λαμβάνω > συλλαβή = arrest, apprehension.

 

Phthong (Greek φθόγγος) in the Greek writing is called one of the different (individual) voices of the word syllables, e.g.: A-m-e-r-i-c-a,  I-t-a-l-y.. Phthongs are the vowels and consonants, the individual sounds of the syllable in the words, as for example the phtongs of the words:

Greek words: γράφω, Ιταλία = γ/ρ/ά/φ/ω, Ι/τ/α/λ/ί/α.. 

Latin words: Italia, Latium = I/t/a/l/y, L/at/i/u/m... 

 

The total of the different phthongs of all languages, ancient or modern, is just twenty (20), the following:

Greek: α, ε, ο, ου, ι, μ, ν, λ, ρ, σ, ζ, τ, δ,  θ,   π, β, φ, κ, γ, χ

Latin:   a, e, o, u,  i, m, n, l, r, s,  z, t,  th, th, p, v, f,  k, g, h

 

The vowel phthongs are 5: α, ε, ο, ι, oυ = u

(Greek φωνήεντα, pronunciation “fonienta”)

 

You’ll hear these phthongs in the first syllable of the Greek words:

ά-λφα, Α-μερική..              in English: America, come, cup, up..

έ-ψιλον, Αί-γυπτος...          in English: Egypt, and, sell,..

ου-ρά, λου-τρό...               in English: to, two, too, use..  

ό-ρος, ώ-ρα,..                   in English: on, over, was..

ι-ώτα, εί-ναι, υι-οθεσία..     in English: in, Italy, eat, beet..

 

The consonant (Greek σύμφωνα, pronunciation “simfona”) phthongs are 15: τ, δ, θ, π, β, φ, κ, γ, χ, μ, ν, λ, ρ, σ, ζ

 

Dental phthongs

You’ll hear these phthongs in the first syllable of the Greek words:

τ-άφ,  τέλος                   in English words: train, total...

δ-έλτα, μαδώ                  in English words: this, mother, father..

θ-ήτα, θέμα..                    in English words: nothing, thematic,...  

 

Labial phthongs

You’ll hear these phthongs in the first syllable of the Greek words:

π-ράξη, πόρτα, ..              in English: put, port, ...

β-ήτα, βόλτα,..                 in English: vapor, over,...

φ-ράση, φάρος..              in English: for, phone, ...

 

Palatal phthongs

Listens the phthong:

κ-άπα, κρέμα...               in English: car, book, back...

γ-άμα, γιος,...                 in English: yes,  yacht, Europ 

x-ρέος, χαρά...                in English: Christ, hot, what..

 

Semivowel phthongs

You’ll hear these phthongs in the first syllable of the Greek words

μ-i, μνήμα, μάνα, ..        in English: mother, mama..

ν-ι, ντύνω, ναός, ..         in English: nation, know,  ...

λ-αιμός, λουτρό..            in English: lamp, let, ...

ρ-ω, ρεύμα, ροή...          in English: rapid, rover,..

σ-ίγμα, στάση...             in English: shortly, same...

ζ-ήτα, ζυγός..                in English: is, rise, japing, Zeus..

 

 

Important note:

1) The phthongs, the vowels and consonants, are a conventional distinction, since the smaller part of a word is the syllable and the consonants are always pronounced with a vowel (that is where the words “φωνήεντα = vowels” and “σύμφωνα = consonants” come from).

2) It was the Greeks who first made the distinction between the phthongs, the consonants and the vowels, in a conventional way, because they realized by going so:

a) Fewer symbols of writing are required since the different kinds of phthongs are fewer than the different kinds of syllables or than the different long and short letters that there was in ancient writings (Cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphics, Semitics, Indians, Cretan..) before.

b) Writing becomes more simplified (easier) and etymological, i.e. that we write what we say phonetically and the same time what we mean as a part of the speech and at the form of the word (type: gender, number, case, person..) by using the homophone letters.

3) Phthongs and syllables are not constituent (intellectual, etymogical) elements of words. Those that realize the linguistic expression are the ending, subject, root, prefix, accent in case of simple inclinable words and first and second components in case of a compound word, i.e.: γράφ-ω, συν-γράφ-ω, δια-γραφ-ή... Simply, in many words, certain linguistic elements may be a mere phthong or just one syllable. I.e.: το έν-α, η καλ-ή…In words without constituent elements or declension (inclination) or their total group of phthongs (sounds of words) is also their expressive element: δέκα, άλφα, απέναντι..

4) The voice - phthongs changed only the:

a) speed of pronunciation (the verse is pronounced continually and the nonfiction instantaneous),

b) density of air (the low density increase the speed),

c) short, fine, thick... etc c(h)ord (For that reason there is boyish, feminine,.... voice),

d) kind of feeling (because of delight, grief,...)

5) The phthongs in all language are the same, because of the lingual loan (the carriage words from language to language) and the common raw material of the words (See  “Phonetic symbols”).

6) A phthong analogous to its company of phthongs in the words, would be pronounced closer or open, instantaneous or continual, e.g.: abide & umbrella, pan, disease, love & make & some...

 

 

5. The Letters of Greek alphabet and his kinds

 

a) The vowel and the consonants

 

Letter (Greek γράμμα) in the Greek writing is called (the name given to) the symbol (line) by which we write a phthong, a vowel or consonant, for example (such as) the letter A(a) which represents the phthong  [a], as in English word: A-merica, the letter B(β) which represents the phthong  [v], as in English word: volt…

The Greek alphabet letters are divided into two parts. The Vowels (Φωνήεντα) and the Consonants (Σύμφωνα): There are 7 vowels and 17 consonants:

 

Vowels:

Greek:  A(α), E(ε), H(η), I(ι), Y(υ), O(ο), Ω(ω).

Latin:   A(a), E(e),  -     I(I), Y(y), O(o),  -

 

Consonants:

Dental

Greek: T(τ) , Δ(δ),     Θ(θ)

Latin:   T(t), TH(th)    -

 

Bilabial

Greek: Π(π), Β(β), Φ(φ)

Latin:  P(p),  V(v),  F(f)

 

Palatial

Greek: Κ(κ),  Γ(γ),   Χ(χ)

Latin:  C(c),   -        H(h)

 

Semivowel

                nasal      tongue        whistling

Greek: M(μ), Ν(ν),    Λ(λ), Ρ(ρ),  Σ(σ) Z(z)

Latin:  M(m), N(n),    L(l),  R(r),  S(s)  Z(z)

 

Double consonants : Ξ(ξ), Ψ(ψ)

Latin:              X(x)  PS(ps)

 

GROUPS OF GRAMMARS

 

ΜΠ(μπ)  =  B(b), like boy: μπόμπα, μπάλα   

ΝΤ(ντ)   = D(d), like door : ντάμα, Ντίνος..

ΓΚ(γκ)   and ΓΓ(γγ) = G(g), like get: συγγενείς, συγκρατώ..

 

AY(αυ)  =  af/v,  like in after,  avocado:  ταυ (taf), αυτός (aftos), αυλή (avli)..

EY(ευ)   =  ef/v,  like in cleff, evolution: ευχή (efhi), εύλογος (evloghos)  

 

OY(oυ)  = U(u), like in put: ουρανός (uranos)

AI(αι)    = Ε(ε), like in: send: σφαίρα (sfera)

OI(oι)    = ΕΙ(ει) = ΥΙ(υι) = Ι(ι), Υ(υ), Η(η), like in: καλοί, καλή, καλεί, υιός..

 

The groups of grammars: ου, αι, ει, οι, υι   (= u, ε, ι, ι, ι) represent one phthong (are two digits letters) and the groups (with dialytica): οϋ, αϊ, εϊ, οϊ ιϋ are two phthongsdiphthongs, see: Μάϊος & σφαίρα (pronunciationsfera”), θεϊκός & θείος…  

(For more see : “homophone letters”, two digits litters, “diphthongs”).

 

 

b) The two digits letters and diphthongs

 

CHARACTERS (DIGITS) OF ALPHABET

 

The 24 letters of Greek alphabet are also called elements (στοιχεία = characters), because with them we are able to create other letters, the letters with two digits, the digital letter: ΑΙ(αι), ΟΥ(ου), ΕΙ(ει), ΥΙ(υι), ΜΜ(μμ)..

Α(α)+ Ι(ι) = ΑΙ(αι) pronounce [ε]: σφαίρα («sfera»)

Ο(ο) + Υ(υ) = ΟΥ(ου) pronounce, same as U(u): ρους («rus»)

M(μ) & Μ(μ) = ΜΜ(μμ)...

 

Similarly in Latin:

A(a) + E(e) = AE(ae): Graecia (= Greece)

T(t) + H(h) = TH(th): Mathematica (mathematics < μαθηματικά),

P(p) + H(h) = PH(ph): philosophia (= philosophy < Φιλοσοφία)

(For more see «homophone letters» and «two digits letters».)

 

 

TWO DIGIT LETTERS

 

In Greek writing there are letters with one digit (line, character) and others with two letters (characters) of the alphabet. In the second case we refer to elements (digits, characters) and two-digit letters.

Letters (characters, with one digit): A(α), E(ε), I(ι), Κ(κ)......

Two digits (digital) letters: AI(αι) = [ε], ΟΥ(ου) = [u], EI(ει) = ΟΙ(οι) = ΥΙ(υι) = [ι]

 

The total of different Greek letters, with one and two digits letters, are 39 (and 40 with final ς) as follows:

 

1) Vowel letters = 12

A(α)               for the phthong [ά]-λφα: Α-μερική, αετός..

OY(oυ)           for the phthong [ου]-ρανός: ου-ρανός, λουτρό..

Ο(Ο) & Ω(ο)    for the phthong [ό]-μικρον, ω-μέγα: ώ-ρα,  ό-μως,...

Ε(ε)  & ΑΙ(αι)   for the phthong [έ]-ψιλον:  έ-λαιον, Aί-γυπτος,,..

Ι(ι)  = Υ(υ) = Η(η) =  ΥΙ(υι) & ΟΙ(οι) & ΕΙ(ει) for the phthong [ι]-ώτα, [ύ[-ψιλον, [ή]τα: υιοθεσία, είσοδοι,  υπέρ, όμοια....

 

2) Consonant letters = 27

For palatial phthongs

K(k) & KK(kk) for the phthong  (κ= c): κράτος, εκκλησία...

Γ(γ)                                     (y = gh): γη, Γιάννης, γιατρός, γιος,....

Χ(χ)                                     [wh, h]: χαρά, χρήμα, χρέος, ...

 

For dental phthongs

Τ(τ) & ΤΤ(ττ) for the phthong       [t]: ταχύς, τρέχω, τείνω, ...

Δ(δ)                                       [δ/dh]: δήμος, δεμάτι, δρόμος, ...

Θ(θ)                                       [θ/th]: θεός, θάβω, θέατρο,....

 

For bilabial phthongs

Π(π) & ΠΠ(ππ) for the phthong [p]: πατέρας, παππούς, από...

Β(β) & ΒΒ(ββ)                        [V]: βάζω, Σάββας,  βέλος,...

Φ(φ)                                     [f]: φωτιά, φάρος, φέτα,...

 

For semivowel

Μ(μ) & ΜΜ(μμ) for the phthong [m]: Μαρία, συμμαθητής..

Ν(ν)  & ΝΝ(νν)                        [n]: Νίκος, έννομος, σύννομος,...

Λ(λ)  & ΛΛ(λλ)                         [l]: Λύκος, παλλαϊκός, λαμαρίνα...

Ρ(ρ)   & ΡΡ(ρρ)                        [r]: ροή, συρράπτω, όρος,...

Σ(σ,ς) & ΣΣ(σσ)                       [s]: Σταυρός, μέλισσα, ησυχία..

Ζ(ζ)                                         [z]: ζάρι, ζυγός, ...

 

Double

Ξ(ξ), Ψ(ψ), ΓΓ(γγ) for the phthongs: κς, πς νκ/γκ: ξένος,  ψάρι, συγγενής…

 

 

Important note:

1) The two-digit letters: OY(oυ), AI(αι), ΕΙ(ει), ΟΙ(οι), ΥΙ(υι) represent one phthong and are different from diphthongs = two phthongs (These has dialitica, dieresis): οϋ, αϊ, εϊ, οϊ, υϊ

2) The first digits O Y E M N... of the two digit-letters OI, YI, EI MM, NN... is unpronounced digits, e.g.: κοινή, υιός, λείπει, γράμμα...

 3) The two-digits letters OY(oυ), ΑΙ(αι) pronounced [u] and [ε]: λουξ = lux, Γραικία = Graecia (= Greece)

3) The two-digits letters EI(ει) = ΥΙ(υι) = ΟΙ(οι)  pronounced the same to I(ι): θείος, ποίοι, υιός,..

 

DIPHTHONGS

 

Diphthongs (di-phthongs = two phthongs, two sounds of the words) are called the group: ΑΙ(αϊ), ΕΙ(εϊ), ΟΙ(οϊ), ΥΙ(υϊ) ΟΥ(οϋ), AY(αϋ), ΕY(αϋ), ΗY(ηϋ) when the are pronounced as two phthongs, when they are two vowel phthongs in reference.  The diphthongs: αϊ, εϊ, οϊ, υϊ, οϋ, αϋ, αϋ, ηϋ  takes a special mark called  “Dialitica”, the marcs ( ¨ ), for distinguishing from:

a) The two-digit letters: AI(αι) = [ε], EI(ει) = ΟΙ(οι) = ΥΙ(υι) = [ι],  ΟΥ(ου) = [u], which are one vowel phthongs

b) The groups ΑΥ(αυ) = [av/f], ΕΥ(ευ) = [ev/f], ΗΥ(ηυ) = [iv/f], which are one vowel phthongs (the vowel a, e, o) and the consonant v/f, 

Diphthongs: Mάϊος (“mά-ι-ος”), προϋπολογίζω (“prο-i-pologhizho”), θεϊκός, δυϊκός..

Two digits letters: Αίγυπτος (“eghιptos”), ρους (“rus”), θείος («thios”), υιόςιός»)..

 

Diphthongs we see in:

Α) derivation words: δυ-ϊκός, θε-ϊκός, Mά-ϊος..

Β) compound words: προ-ϋποθέτω, ά-υλος 

 

 

6. The number (amount) of phthongs and the letters of Greek alphabet

 

In Greek writing there are more letters than phthongs. Phthong (Greek φθόγγος) is called one of the different (individual) voices of the word syllables, e.g.: A-m-e-r-i-c-a,  I-t-a-l-y.. (For more see later)

In Greek writing  for some phthongs we do not have only one letter, but more than one, such as (for example) the letters O(o) & Ω(ω) for the phthong [o] as in «on, over»…, the letters: I(ι) & H(η) & Υ(υ) & ΟΙ(οι)… for the phthong [ι] as in «ill, she, meet, only»..... (See homophone letters), in order to indicate (suggest) or facilitate the etymology of words and distinguish the homophonic (similar voice, same sound) words.

More simple, in Greek writing some phthongs have more letters than one (see o & ω, η & υ & ι...), so that by writing some parts of speech or types (gender, case etc) of the words with some homophone letters on the one hand and with the rest on the other hand for suggestion. In that way we distinguish between the same sound words and find help in the analysis and discovering the meaning of a word. For instance:

Phonetic: “kalis, kali” = means  good (adjective) & he, she call (verb)

Orthographically, Writing with Greek writing:

καλείς, καλεί (if we have verb and second – tree person, we write with –ει)

καλής, καλή (if we have feminale, we write with –η)

καλοί (if we have plural masculine, we write with –oi)

 

Phonetic: «kalo» = good (adjective) & i call (verb)

Orthographically, Writing with Greek writing:

καλό (if we have adjective, we write with –o) = good

& καλώ (if we have verb, we write with –ω) = i, you.. call

 

Something that not occurs in writing with Latin characters (English, French... writing). In English is different. See the homophone words and the etymological writing: to(o) & t(w)o & to, (w)rit(e), ri(gh)t, rit(e)… (We put more letters). Some times we write as in Greek or in Latin, e.g.:

Greek: Ιδέα, Ευρώπη, τιτάν, Ολυμπία…

English: idea, Europe, titan, Olympia

 

 

7. Pronunciation of Greek letters:

 

a. Pronounce of the vowel letters

 

The letter A(α) is always pronounced as the letter α in the word ά-λφα. You’ ll hear this phthong (sound) in the first syllable of the Greek words α-ετός, α-έρας, πα-πας.. or in English words: America, come, cup, father…

The letter E(ε) is always pronounced as the letter ε in the word έ-ψιλον. You’ ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words έ-τος, ε-μπρός.. or in English words: Egypt, empty, and, bet, sell…

The letter Ι(ι) is always pronounced as the letter ι in the word: ι-ώτα. You’ ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words: μι-σός, ί-σος..  or in English words: “in, Italy, eat, beat, beet..

The letter Ο(ο) is always pronounced as the letter ο in the word ό-μικρον. You’ ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words: ό-ρος. ο-ργώνω... or in English words: on, over, was…

The Greek letters ΟΥ(ου) is always pronounced as the letter ου = u in the word ου-ρά. You’ ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words: ου-ρανός, ρους .. or in English words: two, too, to…

 

The letters E(ε) and ΑΙ(αι) are always pronounced the same, that is to say [o], i.e.: καινές = «cenέs». They are homophone letters and needed to distinguish homophone words, e.g: καινή & κενή,..   

The letters O(o) and Ω(ω) are pronounced the same, that is to say [o], i.e.: σωρός = «sorόs». These letters is the same, but with different form to distinguish homophone words e.g: καλ-ώ & καλ-ό… The name Ω(ω)-μέγαο-mega») actually means “o-big, great, large”, while the name Ο(ό)-μικρονο-micron») means “o-small, little, tiny”, because the letter Ο(ο) is shorter in the size (not in the voice) from the letter Ω(ω). Τhe letter Ω(ω) is two oo in the size, not in pronunciation.

The letters Η(η) = Υ(υ) = ΕΙ(ει) = ΥΙ(υι) = ΟΙ(οι)  are pronounced the same as Ι(ι), that is to say [ι], i.e.: υγεία = «ighίa”, ήμεροι = «ίmeri» … These letters is the same, but with different form to distinguish homophone words, e.g.: Kρήτ-η, κρητ-κός, κρητ-ική& κριτ-ής, κρητικός, κριτική…, καλ-ή & καλ-εί & καλ-οί, λύρ-α & λίρ-α, υιοθεσία..

(For more see homophone letters)

 

 

b. Pronounce of the consonants letters

 

1. The consonants - semivowels: M(μ), Ν(ν), Λ(λ), Ρ(ρ), Σ(σ), Ζ(ζ) are always pronounced as the Latin letters: M(m) N(n) L(l) R(r) S(s)  Z(z). 

 

Note:

a) The letter Σ(σ,ς) has two varieties: The final sigma (ς) is used only as the last letter of a word. Otherwise it is written Σ/σ. You’ll see both them in the words «σας» (= you, to you, your). The sigma is ordinarily pronounced like the unvoiced S in the English word “sing a song”. Often it is pronounced voiced, like English Z in the words “zebra, razor”, when it is immediately followed by any voiced consonant sound – like M, N, Λ, Ρ, Β, Δ: ασβέστης, σμήνος, σβήνω, σδεύς,..

b) The Greek letter Z(ζ) is always pronounced as the letter ζ = z in the word ζήτα. You’ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words:  ζωή, ζώνη.. or in English words: zone and: is, rise, nose,..

 

2. The consonant letters: T(τ), Δ(δ), Θ(θ),  Κ(κ), Γ(γ),  Χ(χ),  Π(π), Β(β), Φ(φ), are always pronounced as the Latin: T(t),  TH(th), DH(dh), K(k)= C(c), GH(gh), CH(ch), P(p), V(v), F(f),

The letter T(τ) is always pronounced as the letter t in English words top, temple, too, tip... You’ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words: ταύρος, τίτλος..

The letter Δ(δ)  is always pronounced as the letter th in English words  “the, this”.  You’ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words: δέλτα, δαδί.. 

The letter Θ(θ) is always pronounced as the letter th = dh in English words: thing, nothing... You’ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words: θήτα, θεός, θάρος..

The letter Γ(γ)  is always pronounced  as the letter y = gh as in English word: yes, you... You’ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words: γάμα, γάτα..

The letter K(k) is always pronounced as the letter k/c in English words: combination, coffee, Crete, ask,... You’ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words: κάπα, καφέ..

The letter Γ(γ) is always pronounced as the letter y = gh in English words: yes, yesterday... You’ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words: Γιάννης, γεωργός, γιαγιά..

The letter Χ(χ) is always pronounced as the letter ch or (w)h in the English words: Christ, home, what, how,  why.. You’ ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words: χάρος, χαρτί

The letter Π(π) is always pronounced as the letter p in the English words: part, pan… You’ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words:  πυρά, πόρτα, παύω.. 

The letter Φ(φ) is always pronounced as the letter  f = ph in English words: fire, pharmacy,.. You’ll hear this in the first syllable of the Greek words: φωτιά, φαρμακείο,..

 

3. The duple letters Ξ(ξ), Ψ(ψ) are always pronounced as the Latin X(x), PS(ps) and called διπλά = double, because they represent the consonant combination (two phthongs) κσ/ς = ks and πσ/ς = ps: λουξ = lux,  ψάρι (pronunciation “psari”).

 

Greek: Κάμερα, πόρτα, Ιταλία, Λάτιο, λουξ, κούπα, Ρώμη...

 Latin: Camera, port,    Italia.   Latium, lux,   cupa,     Roma

 

Greek                      pronunciation           mean

_Καλημέρα σας.        «kalιmέra sas»          Good morning.

_Τι κάνετε;               «Tι kάnεtε              How are you?

_Αγγλία, Λονδίνο      «Αnklία, londhίno»   England, London

_Γιαγιά, Ζαχαρίας   «γιαγιά, ζαcharίas»   grandma, Zaccharias

_Θεός, Χριστός        «theos,  chrιstό      god. Christ

 

             Greek: Εγώ είμαι ο κύριος Θεόδωρος Λιακόπουλος.

 Pronunciation: «εγό ίmε ο kίrιοs thεόdhoros lιαkόpulos»

              Mean:  I am Mr. Theodoros Liakopulos

 

English writing: I am tailor. My name is Mary.

   Greek phonetic: «Aϊ εμ τέϊλορ. Μάϊ νεϊμ ιζ Μέρι»

 

 

c. Pronounce of the two-digit letters

 

Greek: OY(oυ),  AI(αι),    ΟΙ(οι)    =   EI(ει) =    ΥΙ(υι)

Latin:   U(u),      ΑΕ(ae),  ΟΕ(oe)          -              -      

 

The two digits letters: AI(αι), ΕΙ(ει), ΟΙ(οι), ΥΙ(υι), ΟΥ(ου) are one phthong (one sound of the words): καινός, εκείνοι, υιός, ρους… and different of the diphthongs: ΑΙ(αϊ), ΕΙ(εϊ), ΟΙ(οϊ), ΥΙ(υϊ), ΟΥ(οϋ) = two phthongs (two sounds of the words): Μάϊος, θεϊκός, δυϊκός, προϋπόθεση..

 

The combination of two vowels (the two - digits letters) EI(ει), ΟΙ(οι), ΥΙ(υι) simply ignore the first vowel E(ε), Ο(ο), Υ(υ) and pronounce only the second one I(ι), like in English word “see”, because ΟΙ(οι) = ΕΙ(ει)  = ΥΙ(υι) = the same as (equivalent to) I(ι): Φοίνιξ =  Phoenix = “fίniks”, υιός = “ιός”, Θείος = “thίοs”

The combination OY(oυ) is pronounced [u]: Λούξ = Lux, ουρανός, ρους..

The combination AI(αι) is pronounced [ε], the same as (equivalent to) E(ε): σφαίρασφέρα»), γαίαγέα»)…. Γραικία (Greek pronounce “ghrekίa”) & Graecia  (Latin  pronounce “grέkιa”.

 

 

The Greek letter I(ι), when it is:

1) alone, it pronounced like Η(η) = Υ(υ) = [ι]:  τιμή («tιmί»), μύτη («mίtι»)

2) stands after the letters A(a), E(e), O(o), Y(υ), without dialytica, it is pronounced together with these, as:

AI(αι) = exactly like Ε(ε): καινός & κενός,

ΕΙ(ει) = ΟΙ(οι) = ΥΙ(υι) = exactly like Ι(ι):  εκείνοι & εκείνη (“εκίnι”), ποιο & πιο (“pιό»), υιοθεσία («ιοthesία»).

3) stands after the letters A(a), E(e), O(o), Y(υ), with dialytica, it is pronounced divorce: αϊ, εϊ, οϊ, υϊ: μαϊντανός (“μαιntanόs”), θεϊκός (“theικόs”), ευνοϊκός («εvnoιkόs”), δυϊκός (“dhιικόs”)...

 

The Greek letter Y(υ) is vowel and consonant, pronounced sometimes as I(ι) = I(i) (when it is without o, ε and with dialytica): μύτη, ύμνος,προ-ϋπόθεση (= two words)  and sometimes as B(β) or Φ(φ) = V or F ( in group αυ, ευ): ευχή (“efchi”), αυτό (“afto”), αυγό (“avgho”)….. (More see later).

 

The Greek letter Y(υ), when it is:

1) alone it is pronounced like I(ι): ύψιλον (“ίpsilon”), μύτη (“mίtι”), δάκρυ (“dhάkrι”), στάχυ (“stάchι»)

2) stands after the letter A, E, H, without dialytica, it is pronounced f or V: αυτάαftά»), αυλή («avlί»), ευχήεvchί»)...

3) stands after the letter A, E, H, with dialytica, it is pronounced as [ι], like Ι(ι): άϋλος, ξεϋφαίνω,...

 

The letters OY(ου)  are  pronounced  [u]: λουξ = lux, νους (“nus”), βους (“vus”)

 

(For more see the “Two digit letters, Homophone letters & Diphthongs”.)

 

 

Important note:

1) The Greek letter B(β) is not pronounced like Latin letter B(b) = MP(mp), but like the letter V(v) in English words: “Venice, Venetian, every” :i.e.: βήτα (= «vita»), βέλος («velos»), βλέπω = “vlέpo”, βαδίζω = “vathizo”..  Different in English:  Beta = “mpέtα”, best = “mpέst”,...

2) The Greek letter Δ(δ) is not pronounced like Latin letter D(d) = NT(nt), but like the letters th = dh in English words “this, these, that”..: δέλτα = “dhεlta”, δεν  = “dhεn”, δετός = “dhetόs”, δράμα = “dhrάma”…Different in English: doll = “ntol”, day = “ntέι”....

3) The Greek letter Γ(γ) is not pronounced like Latin letter G(g) = nc/nk, but like the letters  y  in English words “yes, you, yesterday..”: γάμα = “ghama” not “gama”, γωνία = “ghonία”, Γαλλία = “ghalίa”... Different English: Galilee = “gαlilέ”, goal = “gol”..  

4) The combination NK(νκ), ΝΓ(νγ) > ΓΚ(γκ), ΓΓ(γγ) are pronounced like Latin letter G(g): συγγενής = “sιgenίs”, γκαρίζω = “gariζο»

5) In Latin language the letters B(b), D(d), G(g) are pronounced the same as MP(mp), NT(nt), NC(nc/nk).

We use MP(mp), NT(nt), NC(nc/nk) in the compound words: con-pare > compare, syn-pathy > sympathy (συν-πάθος), syn-thesis (συν-θέσις) > synthesis..

We use the letters B(b), D(d), G(g) in the simple words: drama, ball, table,

 

 

d. The homophone letters

 

Homophone letters (= Greek “ομόφωνα γράμματα”) in the Greek language is the name given (are called) the letters which have the same pronunciation and which stand for same phthong, the following:

 

For vowel:

I(i) = H(h) = Y(y) =  OI(οι) =  EI(ει)  =  YI(υι), are  pronounced [ι], like: ill, keep..

ΑΙ(αι) & Ε(ε), are  pronounced [ε], like: ten, Graecia,

Ω(ω) & Ο(ο),  are pronounced  [ο], like: on, over, Ωnasis

 

For consonants:

Μ(μ)    & ΜΜ(μμ) are  pronounced   = [m],

Ν(ν)    & ΝΝ(νν)    = [n],

Λ(λ)    & ΛΛ(λλ)     = [l],

Ρ(ρ)    & ΡΡ(ρρ)     = [r],

Σ(σ,ς) & ΣΣ(σ,ς)     = [s],

Τ(τ)    & ΤΤ(ττ)       = [t]

 

The above homophone letters used in Greek writing according to rules (according to part of speech, the gender, the number and the case of the words) in order to facilitate the etymology of the writing words. For distinction of the homophone forms as well as a suggestion (to indicate) to the etymological understanding of the writing word, to help yourself in the written speech, see: φύλο & φίλο & φύλλο, καλός & καλώς, καλή & καλεί & καλοί...

 

Rules:

The verbs are writing with –ω: σήκω, καλώ, φοιτώ, λέγω...

The adverbs with –ω(ς): καλώς, κακώς, ... παρακάτω, άνω, κάτω..

The females with –η: Καλή, κακή, Νίκη, νίκη...

The males with –ο: Καλός, κακός, Νίκος...

The neutrals with –ο, ι: σύκο, κακό, ελαφρό,... τυρί, φιλί,....

(For more refer to the Greek Section. )

 

In examining the words we notice that many of them are homophones (similar voice, same sound words) which was caused by either phonological variation or their mutations in time and on inflection (because of homophonic endings): καλ(έ)-ω > καλώ, καλ(έ)-εις > καλείς, καλ(έ)-ει > καλεί...  (= verb, ρήμα) & καλός, καλή, καλό (= adjective, επίθετο ) & καλός > καλοί (plural)...

Moreover in examining these same sound words, we notice that they do not belong to the same kind of speech or gender or form of the words.

In addition the Greek writing had for some phthongs more letters than one, so that by writing some parts of speech or types or phonological variations of the words with some homophone letters on the one hand and with the rest on the other hand. In that way we distinguish between the same sound words and find help in the etymology (analysis and discovering the meaning) of a word. For instance:

Phonetically (in oral speech): “καλός, καλί, καλίς, καλό..”

= Orthographically (in Greek writing):

καλώ, καλείς, καλεί...  (With –ω, ει = verb)

καλό, καλή, καλής, ...    (With – ο,η = adjective)

καλώς (with –ως = adverb) & καλός (with -oς = adjective)

καλή      (with –η =  singular )  &  καλοί  ( with -οι = plural)

 

Same: “ίλι” = ύλη & ίλη & ήλοι & είλη, “ίδι” = είδη & ήδη & Ίδη, «λίπι» = λύπη & λείπει & λίπη, «φίλο» = φίλο & φύλο & φύλλο, «λίρα»= λίρα & λύρα, «κουτί» = κουτί & κουτοί & κουτή...

 

The examples above show us that whenever there are no the homophone letters, we are not able to know what we write.  Because of the same sound words we are not able to distinguish whether a words is noun or verb, male or female, plural or singular....

 

 

8. Silent letters & unpronounced digits

 

There are a few of the case where some letters are not pronounced. Those are:

The letter Y of the letter groups, combination EY(ευ)-, when following letter is B(β) or Φ(φ), e.g.: εύφορος, ευφορία (that’s where the English word “euphoria” come from), ευβοϊκός, Εύβοια..

One of the two identical consonants: MM(μμ), NN(νν), ΣΣ(σς),…, e.g.: αλλά, βλέμμα, εκκλησία

Τhe letter Π(π) in the consonant combination - MPT-, eg.: Πέμπτη = «pέmtι»

The first digits A E Y  in the two-digit letters.

The digits (combination) ΕΙ(ει) =   YI(υι) =  ΟΙ(οι)  is equivalent to I(i) = [ι].

The digits OY(ου), AI(αι) are pronounced together. The combination ΑΙ(αι) is equivalent to E(ε) and the combination ΟΥ(ου) is pronounced  [u]: νους, σφαίρες..

 

 

 

10. THE ORTHOGRAPHIC (SPELLING) MARKS

 

a. The accent and accent mark (‘)

 

In Greek writing there is a little sign just like the single quotation mark, that tells us where we will pronounce the syllable louder,  e.g.: κα-λός, κά-λος,, ά-δικος ...

Accent (τόνος) is called a louder pronunciation of a syllable in a word (the accentuation of the voice in a syllable of a word, e.g. fά-ther = πα-τέ-ρας

Accent mark (τονικό σημάδι) is called the marc (΄) by which we indicate the accent syllable (the name given the sign in written speech above the vowel of the stressed accentuated syllable),  e.g.: πατέρας (father), μητέρα (mother), αυτοκίνητο (car), οικογένεια (family).

 

More simple, the loudest vowel in a word is identified with an acute accent ('). It goes upon the vowel of the syllable, which is pronounced the loudest, e.g. καλό, ημέρα,... If the initial vowel is capitalised and stressed; the acute accent is placed on the upper left corner of the vowel, e.g. Άρης.  When using block letters, the acute accent isn’t used.  For example, ΚΑΛΟ, ΑΡΗΣ… Every word of at least two syllables or more requires one. Only the three last syllables can be accented.

 

Important note:

1) In oral speech (in all languages) one syllable of each word is accented, except in words of one syllable, see in English: morning, pronounce “ mόrnιnk”, Greek: κα-κός, ά-τυ-χος....

2) In the Greek writing we always put the accent mark on top of the stressed vowel letter: κα-λός, νέ-ος.. , Except the words with one syllable: το, της, ποιο, μια, δυο.., because it is understood.

Something that does not occur in writing with Latin characters, see in English: morning (= “ μόρνινκ”), America (= “Αμέρικα”)...

3) The accent is for the expansion of the pronunciation (it is difficult to pronounce the same all the syllable of a word) and in Greek language has notional importance. Accent combined with endings (Something that does not occur in the other languages) state what part of speech and sometimes what type is a word. I.e.:

εξοχ-ή, μετοχ-ή, Ξάνθ-η…             (= noun)

έξοχ-η, μέτοχ-η, ξανθ-ή..               (= adjectives)

άδικ-ο, άπορ-ο, άτυχ-ο, ..               (= adjective)

& αδικ-ώ, απορ-ώ, ατυχ-ώ....         (= verb),

έξοχ-ος, κάθετ-ος, υπόγει-ος,....      (= adjective)

&  εξόχ-ως, καθέτ-ως, υπογεί-ως... (= adverb),...

ξεκίνα, περπάτα, αγάπα…               (= imperative)

ξεκινά, περπατά, αγαπά              (= indicative)

 

RULES FOR ACCENTING

 

1) Words with two or more syllables require an accent. If the accented syllable is omitted due to abbreviation, then the accent isn't used. For example, μου είπε becomes "μού.πε" If the accent falls on a two digits letter it is placed on the second vowel. For example, παίζω.  In παίζω, the pronunciation of E is as in egg, (pezho), not pa-i-zh-o as in tsai.  If it is placed on the first vowel of the diphthong; the two vowels are said separately.  For example, τσάι is pronounced as tsai and not as tse.

2) Monosyllabic words aren't accented because there is only one syllable. There are exceptions to this rule. Primarily this happens to remove any ambiguity when reading and writing. The significant examples are below.

3) The accent of a monosyllabic word can be moved to the last syllable of the preceding word.  It is accented on the third to last syllable and followed by an enclitic.  For example, compare ο πρόεδρος and ο πρόεδρός μου.

4) Disyllabic words loosing a syllable because of elision or apocope, keep their accent, even though they may appear to be monosyllabic.  For example, λίγο από όλα becomes λίγαπ΄όλα.

If two enclitics follow a verb accented on the penult; the enclitic following the verb also bears an accent mark.  For example, δώσε μου το ” but “δώσε μου.”  Notice that πρόεδρος collectively make up three syllables; just like πρόεδρος does in rule 3 above.

 

Rules of modern accentuation

1. The stress mark goes (is placed) on top of stressed vowel letter (words with one syllable do not need an accent) and:

2. In front and on the upper left, when this is the first capital letter: Άδης, Έρως..  or on the second digit, when this letter is with two digits: αι = ε, not αί, ου = u, not ού, οι = ει = υι = ι: Αίγυπτος, Είσοδος,..

3. Above (on the top of) the small one digit vowel (α, ε, ο, η, υ, ω, ι): καλός, ημέρα, άγιος, πρώτος, ύψος..

4. On the second digit at the two digit letters: αι, οι, ει, υι, ου  (in order to show that they are one phthong), when αι = [ε], οι = ει = υι = [ι], ου = [u]): σφαίρα, καλοί, θείος, προύχοντας...

5. On the first letter at the diphthongs αϊ, εϊ, οϊ, υϊ ( in order to show that there are two phthongs  and not two digit-letters, when the letters α, ε, ο, ι are stressed and do not the ι): Μάιος or Μάϊος, νέϊκος, ευβόϊος..

6. Above (on the top of) the letter Y(υ) in the diphthongs αυ, ευ, ηυ, when the letters α, ε, η  are stressed and the letter υ is pronounced β/φ (= v/f)., when the letter Υ(υ) is consonant: παύω, αύριο, εύρος, ηύρα..

7. Above the letter α, ε, η in the diphthongs αϋ, εϋ, ηϋ, when the letter υ is stressed and pronounced as [ι], when the letter Y(y) is vowel: άυλος, έυπνον,....

 

Which words are stressed and which aren’t

Every word that has two or more syllables has an accent, because in this case one syllable stands out of the other, e.g.: όχι, καλημέρα, θεί-ος, Θε-ός...

 

The stress marks are not indicated in:

a) Monosyllable words: με, σε, και, να, σαν, δεν, ο, η, το, πες, βρες...

b) the words that because of elision have lost their stressed syllable in speech: μου (εί)πε > μου ΄πε, από ευθείας > απευθείας, καταρχήν, παρότι... 

 

We put stress mark on the:

Conjunction ή in order to distinguish it from the article η: η Μαρία ή η Γιάννα

Possessive pronouns: μού, σού, τού... to distinguish the weak forms of personal pronouns: μου, σου, του, της .., e.g.: το [έγγραφό μου/σου] λέει άλλα. & το έγγραφο [μού/ σού λέει] άλλα.

Interrogatives πού, πώς in order to distinguish between conjunctions πού (= ώστε), πώς (= ότι) and the pronouns που (= ο οποίος,α,ο) :  Πού και πώς θα πάμε; Μας είπε πού και πώς θα πάμε......  & Είπε πως (=ότι) θα πάμε. Εκείνος που (= ο οποίος) έφυγε. Είναι τόσο δυνατό που (= ώστε) νικά ελέφαντα.

 

 

b. Dieresis marks (¨) (Greek: διαλυτικά σημεία)

 

Dieresis marks (··) is only placed on i or y to show us that there is diphthong. For example, "αι" is two digits letter - pronounced as e in egg while, "α ϊ" is diphthong = two letters - pronounced as ai in main. 

The dieresis marks (there is no name for this marks in English. German Umlauts) are placed on the top of the letters ι or υ to denote than this (the letter ι or υ) must be pronounced separately, when the previous letter is one of the vowels α, ε, o, υ and not as two-digit letter or as group of one vowel and the consonant f or v: Μάϊος, θεϊκός, δυϊκός, ομόϊος..

 

 άϋλος (“α-ι-los”, υ = ι) & αυλός (“avlόs”, υ = v),

προϋπόθεση (proiipothesi, ου = ο + ι) & ουρανός (ου = u).

 

NOTE:

1) The dialytica or diaeresis is used over two vowels ϊ, ϋ, when either of two follows another vowel with which it ordinary forms a diphthong to indicate that it is to be treated as a separate vowel.

2) The dialytica marks distinguish us the two-digit letters from diphthongs or suggest us the contracted words (synaeresis words) and not contacted words. We put dialytica on the not contracted words (= two phthongs), see: ομόϊος, θεϊκός, γάϊα,... =  not contracted words and: ομοίως, θείος, γαία... (pronounced “thίοs, omios, ghea..) = contacted words ( synaeresis words = one phthong).

 

Omission

Dialytica marks can be omitted, when the digit: α, ε, ο, η of the: αϊ, εϊ, οϊ, υϊ, οϋ, εϋ, αϋ, ηϋ are accented (have a stress mark). Stressing (accented) the vowel before ι and υ is a way of saying that we pronounce their elements, for example: νέϊκος & νέικος, Μάϊος & Μάιος

 

The groups: αυ, ευ, ηυ:

Without dialytica or stressed on υ, if this can be stressed αύ, εύ, ηύ, are pronounced αv/f, εv/f, ιv/f: αυλή, ευχή, αυτά, ταύτα, εύκολος, ευοδώ,.... 

With dialytica αϋ, εϋ, ηϋ or stressed on α ε η, if they can be stressed άυ, έυ, ήυ, are pronounced αϊ, εϊ, ιϊ : ξεϋφαίνω, Ταΰγετος,  άυλος,..

 

The groups: αι, ει , οι,  υι, ου

Without dialytica  (or stressed on ι, if this can be stressed) consist two-digit letters (αι =[ε], ου = [u], οι = υι = ει = [ι] = one phthong):  σφαίρα, ουρανός, όμοιοι, υιοθεσία, θείος..

With dialytica (or stressed on α ε ο ο, if they can be stressed) : αϊ, εϊ, οϊ υϊ, οϋ = άι, έι, όι, ίι, όυ are diphthong, we pronounce separately, not contracted (two vowel phthongs > diphthongs):  Μάϊος, προϋπάρχω, θεϊκός, ευνοϊκός, δυϊκός,.. ,

 

Contraction (or synaeresis) is the name given to the subtraction (omission) of a vowel where two occur together (in the contiguous) in a word or both of them and putting in another vowel, e.g. : τιμ(ά)ω > τιμώ, τιμ(ά)εις > τιμάς, γαλ(έα) > γαλή, ποι(έε)ται > ποιείται, τιμ(άου)σι > τιμούσι, Αθην(ά)α > Αθηνά,…

 

In contraction (synaeresis) we write the words:

a) same (as in not contracted), but without dialytica: ευν(ό)ϊαευνοϊκός > εύνοια, θ(έ)ϊοςθεϊκός > θείος, γάϊα > γαία.....

b) with letter ω, η, ει  instead αo, εα, εε: γαλ(έα) > γαλή, ποι(έε)ται > ποιείται, τιμ(αό)μενος > τιμώμενος or τιμούμενος, Ηρακλέας > Ηρακλής,...

Synaeresis is occurred in English, but does not indicated like Greek: live (“lαϊv”) > living (“lάϊvink > lίvιnκ”),..

 

 

c. Apostrophe (‘) (= Greek  απόστροφος)

 

The apostrophe (') is used only when words are abbreviated.  The apostrophe is used when there is elision (e.g. σαγαπώ) or apocope (e.g. φέρτο) and aphaeresis (e.g. μουφερε). The apostrophe is the mark by which we indicate the elimination (non-pronounced) of the initial or the terminal vowel of the word in oral speech. It replaces the first or last vowel of a word, when this vowel is omitted due to one of the “vowel alternation”, e.g.: 

Greek: λίγ’ απ’ όλα, σ’ αγαπώ (= σε αγαπώ), που (εί)ναι > πού ‘ναι...

English: She can’t (= can not) drive well.

There are three 8’s in 1888.

There are two A’s, two m’s and two R’s in the word “grammar”.

 

In the Greek written speech, the marc that replaces the first or the last vowel of a word, when this vowel is omitted to one of the «vowel alteration», i.e.:

 

Ekthlipsis (elision): αυτό (ε)κείνο = αυτό ‘κείνο, ουδ(έ) ενός > ούδ’ > ενός, είν(αι) ανάγκη > είν’ ανάγκη …

 (We have here two word, two accent syllable)

Crasis (constitution, crasis mean compound): σ(ε) αγαπώ > σαγαπώ, που (εί)ναι > πούναι, μού (εί)πε > μούπε

(We have here one word, one accent syllable.)

Apocope (abscission, apocope mean something omitted): φέρ(ε) το > φέρτο, πιάσ(ε) το > πιάστους

(We have here on word, one accent syllable, the vowel is omitted before t- of the article and not before other vowel)

 

Note: 

1) We use the apostrophe to show that we have two words instead of one, for example: σού ΄πα = 2 words [σου (εί)πα] & σούπα alone word, the meal in this name]

2) Word which loses their stressed syllable is pronounced as compound words with the former (of the following) word, for example: που (εί)ναι = πουναι (one word) = crasis (constitution), whereas: είν(αι) ανάγκη = είν  ανάγκη (two words) = ekthlipsis (elision)

 

 

d. Comma of words or decimal point (,) (η υποδιαστολή)

 

It is used only:

In relative pronoun ό,τι (= κάθε τι, όλα, whatever, every one, all ) to distinguish it from the conjunction ότι (= that).

In numbers (decimal point) expressed as a decimal: 1,30 24,50…

 

 

e.  PUNCTUATION MARKS (DOTS)

 

Full stop period (.),  (Greek “τελεία”, mean end)

Is placed at the end of a complete sentence. The first letter of the word that comes after the period is capitalized, just like in most European languages (English, German etc).

_Η Μαρία είναι φοιτήτρια. Ο Χρήστος είναι μαθητής.

= Mary is student. Christ (Χρήστος) is pupil.

 

Exclamation mark (!) (Greek “Θαυμαστικό, mean “declare”)

It is used same way as in English:

_Hello! = Γεια σας! Τι ωραίο αμάξι! = What a beautiful car!

_Mind! = Πρόσεχε!

 

Comma (,)

(Greek «κόμμα», mean a small part)

The comma (,) is used just as in English.

 

Greek: H Μαρία αγόρασε ένα καπέλο, ένα ζευγάρι παπούτσια, ένα φόρεμα, μια φωτογραφική μηχανή και μια βαλίτσα.

English: Mary bought a hat, a pair of shoes, a new dress, a camera and a suitcase.

 

 The comma is also used as a decimal point and for parenthesis. One strange usage in Greek is to distinguish ότι (that/which) from ό,τι  (whatever).  There are occurrences where ό,τι is written without the comma: ότι In mathematics, the comma and the period switch places in Greek.  For example, 0,5 is a half, while 1.000 is a thousand.

 

Semicolon (΄ ) 

(Greek «άνω τελεία»,  it mean upper full stop)

It is used in the same way as in English, but not that it looks like the English. The semicolon marc in English is (;) and in the Greek is (΄)

Greek: Αυτή δεν μπορούσε να φάει ή να κοιμηθεί’ η δύναμή της…

English: She could not eat or sleep; her strength, never great, failed her entirely and nothing that Nerina could do could give her hope or solace.

_Το νερό είναι λίγο΄ ας το προσέχουμε.

 

The question marc (;)

(Greek “Ερωτηματικό”)

It is used in the same way as in English, but not that it looks like the English. The question marc in English is (?) and in the Greek is (;). Ιt looks like the English semicolon.

_Τι είπε αυτός; = What he say?

_Πώς είσαι; = How are you?

_Did you go to the cinema last night? = Πήγε σινεμά χθες βράδυ.

 

The colon (:)

(Greek “τα επεξηγηματικά”, it mean explanation, or άνω κάτω ή διπλή τελεία, it mean double full stop)

It is used like in English, when we quote someone or when we enumerate, explain or state a result.

_Η Μαρία είπε: Ο Νίκος είναι κακός άνθρωπος.

= Mary said: Nick is bad man.

_Θα πάρω, τα εξής:

Τα πράγματά σου,

Τα εισιτήρια μας για Κρήτη,

Τον

 

The quotation marks  (<<>>)

(Greek “Εισαγωγικά”)

It is used like in English.

Greek: Ο Γιώργος είπε <<Εγώ οδήγησα μια κάντιλακ χθες το απόγευμα>>..

English: George said “I drove a cadillac yesterday in the afternoon”.

_O Γιάννης είπε την λέξη «Υπουργός».

= John said the word “Ipurghόs” (Υπουργός = the minister)

 

 

Old accent marks & pneumatics

 

In Modern Greek writing we have only one accent marc, the marc (΄). Until 1982 there were three different accent marks in Greek writing:

The marc (‘) called οξεία (pronunciation “oxia”)

The marc (~) called περισπωμένη (pronunciation “perispomeni”)

The marc (’) called βαρεία, (pronunciation “varia”)

 

(For more see in the Greek section)

 

The dash (-) is used to split up words at the end of a line.

The brackets (()) are used as in English.

The 3 dots (...) are used as in English.

The hyphen (-) is used, when writing dialogue, to show that another person speaks. For example:

-Γεια σας παιδιά.

-Γειά σου Αλεξάκι. Τι κάνεις; Καλά;

-Ναι, μωρό μου

 

Sometimes the double hyphen (--) is used as parenthesis.

 

DIFFERENCES IN PUNCTUATION

Greek punctuation marks are similar to that of English.  Only three signs have different meanings.  The English quotation marks do appear in Greek context.

 

Punctuation Marks

English

Greek

Semicolon

;

·

Question Mark

?

;

Quotation Mark

“…”

«...»

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2nd

SPELLING OF LETTERS

(ORTHOGRAPHIC RULES)

 

 

Spelling or orthography (Greek: ορθογραφία) in the Greek writing is name given to the correct writing of a word. It is meant to denotes the spelling of the words not only according to the way they are pronounced  (for example “καλό”, not «ακλό or κλαo») but also in correspondence (by analogy) to its etymology (proportional to its derivation and to its part of speech, gender, case, singular or plural number, proper or common noun,... etc), so as to help oneself to understand  the writing words or to distinguishing the writing homophone words, see:

Κρήτη >κρητικός (with –η-) & κρίνω > κριτικός (with -ι-)

συν + λόγος > σύλλογος (compounded word: n + l = ll),

γράφω > γράφ-μα – γράμμα (derived word: p, v, f + m = mm),...

καλό (adjective, επίθετο, with -o) & καλώ (verb, ρήμα with -ω),

καλή (adjective, επίθετο, with -η) & Καλή (proper name with K-),

φίλο (= friend) & φύλο (of people) & φύλλο ( of tree),

 

Rules of spelling are the ways in which we use the homophone letters o & ω, η & υ & ι... , the capital or small letters Κ & κ, Α & α... as well as the marks of stress, punctuation... for the reasons we saw above.

 

a) Spelling Rules of capital letters

 

Capital letters are used for the first letter of a:

Sentence, to distinguish one sentence from another (Like in English):

_Σήμερα είναι Κυριακή. Αύριο θα πάω σχολείο.

 Proper or first name, to distinguish nouns from proper nouns:

_ Μαρία, Νίκος Παπαδόπουλος, Αζόρ, πλοίο «Κρήτη»..

 

Important note:

In the Greek writing, if a word (or a proper noun) is used as an adjective or common noun it used small letter. It used capital letter only when it is used as proper noun:

αγαθή (γυναίκα, adjective) & Αγαθή (proper noun, name of woman),

κόκκινος (= adjective,  red) & κ. Kόκκινος (= proper name, a man),

κυψέλη (bee) & Κυψέλη (a Greek town),

 

This does not occur in English, i.e.:

English: The Latin writing system. & The Latin is an ancient country.

 (Here the word “Latin” = adjective & proper noun)

Greek: Το λατινικό σύστημα γραφής. & Το Λάτιο είναι μια αρχαία χώρα.

 

 

b) Spelling rules of the forms of words (typological rules)

 

Typological rules are those that tell us which of the homophone letters o & ω, η & ι...  is going to be used at the end of a word, in order to show us their part of speech or the type (gender, number, case, person) or to distinguish us the homophone words:

Phonetically (in oral speech):  καλός,ί,ό/ kalos,i,o”

= Orthographically (in Greek writing):

καλ-ός,ή,ό    (with –o,η = adjective, the word mean “it is good”),

καλ-ώ, είς,εί (with –ω,ει = verb, the word mean “i call, cry”)

καλ-ώς          (with –ως = adverb, the word mean “it is beautiful, good”)

The homophone letters o & ω, η & ι & υ … in the suffix (ending) of the words show us their part of speech or the type (gender, number, case, person) or distinguish us the homophone words, when we have homophone roots and suffix: καλ-ό & καλ-ώ, καλ-ή & καλ-οί & καλ-εί

 

RULES

1. Verb with –ω,ει: καλ-ώ, καλείς, καλεί... σήκω, φιλώ...

2. Adjective & nouns with –ο,η:

3. Feminine with –η: καλ-ή, κακή, νίκη, Νίκη, φίλη...

4. Neuter with –ι,ο: καλ-ό, σύκ-ο, κακό... τυρί, ψωμί..

5. Masculine with –ο,η (plural –οι): Νίκ-ος, Γιάνν-ος, Γιάνν-ης, Μανώλης,… καλ-οί, κακοί, πετεινοί...

(For further details see in the Greek Section)

 

c) Spelling rules of the themes of words (thematic rules)

 

Thematic rules are those that tell us, which letter from homophone letters o & ω, η & υ & ι.... to use in the theme (= the begin, the base) of a word in order to show their derivation (root or prototype word etc), so that we can to find their etymology more easing, and at the same time to distinguish the homophone words, when this is not possible to do so (to occur) by using typological rules.

Phonetically: “λίπι/lipi” =  Orthographically:

λίπη” (with ι,  it is neuter noun, plural = fat)

& λύπη (with υ, it is feminine noun, singular = pain, regret)

& λείπει (with ει,  it is verb = be absent)

The homophone letters o & ω, η & ι & υ … in the theme (= the begin, the base) of a word help us to find the kind of a word or to distinguish the homophone words, when we have homophone roots: Κρήτ-η > κρητ-ικός, κρητ-ική.. & κριτ-ής > κριτ-ικός, κρητική..

 

RULES:

1. The derived words are written according to the original words: Κρήτ-η (original word) > κρητ-ικός (derived word, with letter η, as in the word Κρήτη), κριτ-ής (original) > κριτ-ικός (derived, with letter ι, as in word κριτή)..

2. The compound words are written:

With the letters νν μμ λλ ρρ if we have ν + ν, μ, λ, ρ: εν-νόμος > έννομος, συν-μαθητής,> συμμαθητής, σύν-λογος > σύλλογος, συν-ράπτω > συρράπτω

With the letter κκ, ββ... if we have  κ + κ, β + β: εκ-κλησία, Σάβ-βας,.....

With γκ, γγ, γχ, if we have ν + κ γ χ: συν-καιρός > σύγκαιρος, συν-γένος > συγγενής, συν-χαίρω > συγχαίρω...

With the letter –o-, if the second word of the compound word begin with a consonant: κρεο-πωλείο, συχνο-ρωτώ... and with the letter –ω-, if the second word begin from vowel o: επ-ώνυμα (όνομα), αν-ώδυνος (οδύνη)...

With the rr if the second word begin with  r: επίρρημα, απόρρητος,... or if both the words of the compounded have r like υπερ-ροδιακός...

(For further details see in the Greek section)

 

 

d) The phthongs  [s], [n] and letters Σ(σ,ς), Ν(ν)

 

Phthong [s] is written as Σ(σ) in middle (inside) of a word and as Σ(ς) at the end of the word.

The letters N(ν) and Σ(σ) are pronounced loudly in the begin or inside of a word and slightly-soft voiced when found at the end of a word: σκάλα, πάσα, καλός, της, την

 

Note:

1) Some words that end in the letter –n, like the articles την, τον, the conjunction μην, δεν etc, drop the final N(ν) before words that start with a consonant other than κ, π. τ and ξ, ψ:

Keep it before fine k p t: τον αέρα, την ημέρα, μην πας, δεν τέλειωσα..

Drop it before rest: τη βέργα, το(ν) γέρο, την δένω, ένα(ν) φίλο, δε θέλω, μη μιλάς,...

2) In many Greek words the last phthong Ν(ν)  make (turned) Γ(γ) or M(m). If the next word starts with bilabial π, β, φ, ψ, then it is (some times) pronounced as [m], before palatial κ γ χ  as γ: συν-πάσχω > συμπάσχω, συν-φέρω > συμφέρει, συν-βαίνει > συμβαίνει, συν-ψηφίζω > συμψηφισμός... συν-καιρός > σύγκαιρος, συν-γενής > συγγενής, συν-χαίρω > συγχαίρω,....

τον κήπο >  «τογκήπο», την πάω > «τημπάω»

δεν πάω > «δεμπάω», τον ψάχνω > «τομψάχνω»

3) The letter Σ(σ) before the voiced consonants B(β), Γ(γ), Μ(μ) some times pronounced as [ζ]:

Change it: ασβέστης = «αζβέστις», πλάσμα = «πλάζμα», σγουρός = «ζγουρός», σμήνος, σμίγω, σβήνω, Τρίσβαθο, σμάλτο.

Normally: Σνίτσελ, Ισλάμ, Γιουγκοσλαβία...

Moreover the final –ς is pronounced ζ before words that start with a voiced consonant B(β), Γ(γ), Μ(μ), Δ(δ)...:

Change it: πές μου = “πέσμου” & “πέζμου”, τους βλέπω, τις δασκάλες, στους δρόμους,

Normally: τις λίμνες, τις άδειες, τις νύκτες, τους ρόλους...

 

c) The letter Υ(υ)

 

A. Orthography

By using the letter (character) Y(υ) we write the phthongs [v] or [f] only in the prefix –suffix, as:

the final phthong [v and f] in the words: ευ, ταυ, as well in the compound and derivatives: ευ-φορία, ευ-χαριστώ, ταυ-τίζω, ευ-λογία...

the phthong [v], when is prefix or suffix, in the ending –ευω, -ευομαι: ιππέ(υ)ω, ερμηνε(ύ)ω, κουρεύω, κουρεύομαι...

In other cases, we use the letter B(β), Φ(φ): βοσκός = “voscos”, φόρεμα = “forema”,...

 

The phthong [ι] is only written with letter Y(y) in certain words, such as:

The adjectives ending with –is/os: ελαφρός = ελαφρύς, μακρός = μακρύς,..

The word derived from certain phonetic variations of the u: κούπα (cupa) > κύπη > κύπελλο...

 

B. Pronunciation:

The letter Y(υ)  is pronounced [ι], when it  is alone: μύτη = «miti», υπέρ = «ιper»... or when it has dialitica (diareses): άϋπνος & άυπνος (“aϊpnos”), προϋπόθεση (“proϊpoθesi”),...

The letter Y(υ)  is not pronounced, when it is with the letter o in the two digital letters OY(oυ): ρους, προύχοντας,.. as well when it is before Β(β), Φ(υ): ευφορία ( = “eforia”), Εύβοια (= “evia”),....

The letter Y(υ)  is pronounced [v], when it is before a vowel digits (= ω α ε ο υ..), semivowel (μ ν λ ρ)  and medium (γ β δ) letter: ευωδιά, αυλή, αυγά, Αυδού, εύσωμος...

The letter Y(υ)  is pronounced [f], whenever it is exists before the rest of the letters (spirant = σ ζ ξ, aspirate φ χ θ, fine κ π τ): αυτό, ευθύνη, ευχή, αυθάδεια, Εύξεινος

 

 

PHONEMIC MUTATIONS

AND ORTHOGRAPHIC RULES

 

Some times in the conjugation, composition (synthesis of word) and derivation (reproduction word from other word) of the words many times occur phthongs changes, as the followings:

Addition of a phthong: λύω > λύ(ν)ω, πυρία > (σ)πύρ(τ)α, κόνις > (σ)κόνη...,

Subtraction of a phthong: τιμ(ά)ω > τιμώ, τιμά(ει)ς > τιμάς, (Β)ενετία > Ενετία., γρά(φ)μα > γράμμα, συ(ν)-μαθητής > συμμαθητής....

Alternation of a phthong: πένης > πείνα, τρέπω > τροπή, νέμω > νομή, αθρόως  > αθροί(ζ)ω, ήρθα > ήλθα, δένδρον > δέντρο...

Transfer of a phthong: σπόρια - όσπρια, rapio – αρπώαρπάζω, εκςεξ  > ξε-....

 

In Greek writing some of the above phonemic variations are indicated with orthographically sign (apostrophe or specific tonic mark) or with a concrete homophone letters of the o & ω, η & υ... in order to indicate the etymology of the words, e.g.:

With the letter οι, if the phthong  [ι] is proceed from [o]: αθρόω > αθροίζω, μόριο > μοίρα, στόχος > στοίχος..

With the letter αι, if the phthong  [ε] is proceeded from [α] or αϊ: χαρά > χαίρω, ύφανσηυφαίνω...

With the letter η, if the phthong  [ι] is proceeded from [ε] or [a]: άρξω υπ-ήρξα, άγω > ηγούμενος, αμαρτάνωήμαρτον..  χρέος, χρέματα > χρήμα, Μνεσίθεος > Μνησίθεος,....

(For more details see in the Greek section)

 

In oral speech, with apostrophe (the vowel which is not pronounced):

Crasis (constitution): σ΄ αγαπά, μαγαπά, πού ΄ναι, μούπε.. = σε αγαπά, με αγαπά, που είναι, μου είπε..

Ekthlipsis (elision): ουδ’ ενός, ουτ΄ αυτός, αυτό ‘κείνο, είν’ ανάγκη… = ουδέ ενός, ούτε αυτό, αυτό εκείνο, είναι ανάγκη…

Apocope (abscission): φέρ’ το, πιάσ΄ την, πάρ’ τους… = φέρε το

 (For more see “Apostrophe”)

 

The above phonemic mutation (variations) occur in all languages, see for example in English:

An apple & a man (a, an)

ι   > ε:  athlete («άθlιt») > athletic («αθλέtικ»). Same: extreme > extremity, sheep > shepherd, intervene > intervention, hero > leroine, serene, serenity,....

εϊ > α:  volcano (“vοlκέϊnun”) > volcanism (“vοlκαnism»). Same: profane > profanity, grateful > gratitude, explain > explanatory, chaste > chastity,...

αου > ου: pronounce (“prοnάuns”) > pronunciation (“prοnunsιεϊsοn”). Same:  profound > profundity, abound > abundant, south > southern, found > fundamental,...

εου, αου > o: mediocre > mediocrity, joke > jocular, diagnose > diagnostic, microscope > microscopic, neurosis > neurotic, episode > episodic, nose > nostril,...

minute (“maϊniut - miniut”) = adjective  & minute (“minit”) of hour

,.......................................

 

In Greek writing the above phonemic variations had the names:

“Prosphisis” is the name given to the suffix, the addition of a phthong, vowel or consonant, in the word, f.e.: λέ(γ)ω,εις,, (ν)οικοκυρά,.....

“Aphomiosis” is the name given to the simulation, the omission (subtraction) of a consonant from the rest continuous at a word (in this case doubling the following added consonant): γράφω > γρά(φ)-μα > γράμμα, γραμματική.. (grammar), κόβω > κόβμα > κόμμα (comma), συν-μαθητής > συμμαθητής,... 

Syntmisis” is the name given to the abbreviation, the subtraction of a central (esoteric) vowel: σ(ι)τάρι, κορ(υ)φή,...

Ιotakismos” is the name given to the change (trope) of vowel a e o u at vowel jot [ι] = orthographically ι,  υ, η, υι, ει, οι: αθρόω > αθροίζω, πένης > πείνα, πόνος > ποινή, χρέματα > χρήματα, πλέον > πλήθος...

Similarly in Latin: in – statuo > institute, facio - perficio, , caedo - occido,..

Synaeresis (For more see “dialytica”)

 Synizisis (Greek “συνίζηση”) is called the pronunciation of two vowels not making a diphthong as one syllable, the depression (pronounce together, note separately). It’s happens only if the first vowel is the phthong [ι] = the letter ι = η = υ = οι = υι = ει: ποιους & ποί-ους, μί-α & μια, δύ-ο & δυο....

The phthong [ι] (= the letters υ η ι οι υι ει in the Greek writing) before other vowel phthong is sometimes short and another time long, e.g. in Greek: ποί-ους (two syllables) & ποιους (one syllable).

The above short (contraction, depression) pronunciation of the phthong [i] is called synizhisis and it is take place to abbreviate or for differential acceptation of the word, e.g.: ά-δεια (2 syllables, means empty) & ά-δει-α (3 syllables, permission)

 

(See in English the words “shark, use”.., which are pronounced “sιάrκ, ghιuζ” and the words “Seeable, Seattle”.. which are pronounced “sί-abl, sί-atle..”)

 

 In the Greek writing:

a) With accent marc on the letter: ι = υ = η = οι = ει = υι, we pronounce the word in two syllables, with expanded, long time pronunciation the phthong [ι], i.e.: μί-α, δύ-ο, ποί-ος, ποί-α, ποί-ο, ποί-οι, ποί-ων, ποί-α, βί-α...

b) Without accent marc on the letter ι = υ = η = οι = ει υι, we pronounce the word in one syllable, with contracted, shortly time pronunciation the phthong [ι], i.e.:  μια, δυο, ποιος, ποια, ποιο.... για, πια..

But: βι-ά-ζομαι & βιά-ζομαι, ά-δει-α & ά-δεια, επιπλοποιός, υιός > γιός....

 

Systole

The phthong [ι] (= the letters υ η ι οι υι ει in the Greek writing) before consonant sometimes pronounce shortly, e.g: άχυρο > άχjρο, κυμάς > kjμάς..

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3nd 

FALSIES FOR GREEK

LANGUAGE & WRITING

 

 

1. The falsies for the different ancient Greek Language and for Greek historical writing

 

According to a medieval point of view expressed by Dutch philologist Desiderius Erasmus (1457 – 1536 A.D.) in the <<Dialogus de recta Latini Graecique serminis pronunciatione>>, which, unfortunately, remains even nowadays the official thesis of foreign scholars about the Greek Grammar, the Greek writing and the current writings with Latin characters (English, French etc) are historical. That means that:

1) The New Greek write in the way their forefathers were once used to write speak. They write in the ancient way (the ancient pronounce), but their pronunciation is different (the pronounce of today).

2) The ancient Greek language is different (variant) compared to the modern one because the ancient Greek contained the phthongs (sound, voice of words) ω, η, υ, which have survived in the modern Greek writing traditionally and historically!

 

Beginning the Erasmus from the thought that the ancient Greeks it was not possible they begin the writing with a lot of points (letters of alphabet) for same sound (phthong) of the word, e.g. the letters Y and I for the sound [ι], the letters O and Ω for the sound [o] etc led from now on error conclusion:

(I) The writing of new Greeks (and the writings with the Latin characters, because imitate the writing of ancient Greeks) is historical, because it maintains from habit the letters Ω, Η, Υ… E.g.: τιμώ, καλώ … while they ceased represent sounds of Greek language, because they coincided with the accent of O, I,

(II) The ancient Greek language was different from news, because:

a) ancient contained also the sounds of words that was written with letters Ω, Η, Υ, where the letter Η pronounced as long [ε], that is to say until two extended [εε], The letter Ω pronounced as long [ο], that is to say until two extended [oo ] and Y as [u ]. For the himself the clusters: AI EI YI OY AY EY IY, HY…. pronounced as shows their digits, that is to say: AI = [ a-i ], EI = [ e-i ], YI = [ o-i ], OY = [ o-i], AY = [ au ], EY = [ eu ], HY = [ eeu ]…..

b) the doubly similar letters mm, nn, ss,... pronounced and the two and not only the one where pronounce today,

c) the letters d, b, g pronounced as "nt, mp, nk/g" and no until today.

 

Pronunciation of ancient Greek words, according to the Erasmus: γεωργία (agriculture) = "geoorgja" and no "gheorghίa", Ευρώπη (Europe) = euroopee" and no" evro'pi ", αυστηρός (strict) = "austeeros" and no "afstιrόs", είναι (is) = "eϊnaϊ" and no "ίne", ηύρα = "eura" and no "ίvra"…

 

It is marked that:

1. The above-mentioned opinion of Erasmus caused then reaction in very a lot of scholars, Greeks and foreigners, as in Κλέωνα Ραγκαβή (Kl. Ragavi) in the German (Vavaro) philologist I. Ρόυχλιν (I. Reuhlin), 1445 -1522 p.Cr. (by where were named the opponents of Erasmus "ροϋχλικοί'" or ιωτακιστές, because pronounced the letters H, Y, EI, OI, YI as letter I and no thus, as proposed the Erasmus) saying that such something neither in the Byzantine delivery neither in the ancient writers is reported. However they did not convince also the wrong above-mentioned opinion for the Greek system of writing introduced in the Greek and foreigner Universities.

2. Above-mentioned Erasmus opinion (aspect), even if it is error, was imported in the schools of west the 16th century and is in effect up to today.

 

 

The above opinion of Erasmus is wrong, because:

A) Historical writing is the writing with the Latin characters (English, Dutch, France etc) and not the Greek. In these writings we write many words like in Greek or Latin and not according to a writing system, for examples:

Greek: πρόβλημα, τιτάν(ας), Γεωργία, Ευρώπη, ιδέα, τυπώ(νω),  φωτοτυπία, νέο,  Ολυμπιακός,  φιλοσοφία, τηλέφωνο...... 

& English: problem (“πρόμπλεμ»), titan(«ταϊταν»), George («τζόρτζια»), Europe («γιούροπ»), idea («αϊντία»), type  («τάϊπ»), prototype , new, Olympia philosophy, telephone,... 

Latin: cluba (κλούμπα -κλούβα), cupa (κούπα), America, pluς (πλους), imperial («ιμπέριαλ»), lina («λίνα»), douo > double («ντουπλέ»), catae («κάτε - γάτες»).. 

& English: club («κλάμπ»), cup («κάπ»), America, plus («πλας»), imperial («ιμπίριαλ»), line («λάϊν»), double ("ντάμπλ"), gates (γκέϊτς)

B) In ancient Greek language there are the same phthongs (= sounds of words) as in modern. Simple in Greek writing, old and modern, there are homophone (same sound, same voice) letters, the letters: o & ω = (o), ε & αι = [ ε],     η & υ & ι & ει & οι & υι = [ι]...,  and each word is written with one of these homophones letters according to its etymology (= according to its part of speech, form of word: gender, number, case... and derivation or composition) on the one hand in order to establish (help) its meaning and on the other to distinguish the homophone (same sounds)  words, i.e.: καλώ & καλό, κουτί & κουτή & κουτοί, φύλο & φύλλο,...

Rules:

The verbs are writing with –ω: σήκω, καλώ, φοιτώ, λέγω...

The adverbs with –ω(ς): καλώς, κακώς... παρακάτω, άνω, κάτω

The females with –η: Καλή, κακή, Νίκη, νίκη...

The males with –ο: Καλός, κακός, Νίκος...

The neutrals with –ο,ι: σύκο, κακό, ελαφρό... τυρί, φιλί...

,..............

 

Phonetic (oral speech): “kalό, sίko, άporo, άdhiko.....

& Writing with the Greek writing:

καλ-ό, σύκ-ο, άπορ-ο, άδικ-ο,... 

(the neutrals  are writing at ending  with letter –ο )

 & καλ-ώ, σήκ-ω, απορ-ώ, αδικ-ώ,... 

(the verbs are writing at ending with letter  -ω)

 

In Greek writing, if you see a written word with the letter –ω (at the ending), it is mean that this word is verb: καλ-ώ,είς... With the letter -o = neuter: καλ-ό, σύκο.., with the letter -η = masculine: καλ-ή, καλ-ής.....

 

In examining the words we notice that many of them are homophones (similar voice, same sound words) which was caused by either phonological variation or their mutations in time and on inflection (because of homophonic endings): καλ(έ)-ω > καλώ, καλ(έ)-εις > καλείς, καλ(έ)-ει > καλεί...  (= verb, ρήμα) & καλός, καλή, καλό (= adjective, επίθετο ) & καλός > καλοί (plural)...

Moreover in examining these same sound words, we notice that they do not belong to the same kind of speech or gender or form of the words.

In addition, the Greek writing have for some phthongs more letters than one (see o & ω, η & υ & ι...), so that by writing some parts of speech or types (gender, case etc) of the words with some homophone letters on the one hand and with the rest on the other hand for suggestion. In that way we distinguish between the same sound words and find help in the analysis and discovering the meaning of a word. For instance:

Phonetically:  καλός, καλί, καλίς, καλό…..”

= In Greek writing (Orthographically):

καλώ, καλείς, καλεί...  (With –ω, if it is verb)

καλό, καλή, καλής, ...    (With – ο,η, if it is adjective)

καλώς (With –ως, if it is adverb) & καλός (with –ος  if it is adjective)

καλή (With –η, if it is singular)  &  καλοί  (with –οι,  if it is plural)

 

Same: “ίλι” = ύλη & ίλη & ήλοι & είλη, “ίδι” = είδη & ήδη & Ίδη, «λίπι» = λύπη & λείπει & λίπη, «φίλο» = φίλο & φύλο & φύλλο, «λίρα»= λίρα & λύρα, «κουτί» = κουτί & κουτοί & κουτή...

The examples above show us that whenever there are no the homophone letters, we are not able to know what we write.  Because of the same sound words we are not able to distinguish whether a words is noun or verb, male or female, plural or singular....

 

3) If the new (modern) Greek writing were historical, then:

a) The Greek words are always written with the same letters (as it happen in English writing), however such something does not happen, see:

Ancient (αρχαία): τιμάω, φάος, κόνις, πυρία, Ελλάς, ανθέει, δένδρον…

= modern (νέα): τιμώ, φως, σκόνη, σπύρτα, Ελλάς, ανθεί, δέντρο

b) In a lot of written words would exist dimension between accent and writing, as it happens in the English for example historical writing. That is to say they would be presented the phenomenon for the same letter we have very a lot of or different accents or with a letter we depict different sounds of the words, however such something it does not happen, see eg that in the words: καλή, σοφή, ώρα, θεός, συν, σφαίρα, θείος(= good (woman), wise man, hour, god, plus, ball, uncle…) the letters o,ω pronounce always [o], the letter ε,αι always ε….

On the contrary, see eg in English: ιδέα > idea (= accent "αίntία"), Ευρώπη > Europe (accent "ghjou'rop"), go (“nko-u”), doc (“ntok”), come (“kam”), one (“oua'n”)…... where, and as we see here, the letters they are always one and alone accent, but many, depending on the word (see eg that the letter o pronounce when oou, when o, when a, when oua' ...).

 

Naturally in the Greek writing the tow digits letters: oυ, ει, υι, αι they have always also these the this accent in all the written speech: καλοί, σφαίρα, καλεί, υιός, ποίοι… (= good, does ball, call, son…) and various from diphthongs (= two phtongs, two sounds of words): οϋ, εϊ, οϊ, υϊ, αϊ: προϋπόθεση, θεϊκός, δυϊκός, Μάϊος, ευνοϊκός

 

We remind that:

a) In the Greek writing the homophones letters (= these with which we suggest with rules the etymology of words) are other of one only digit: o and ω, η and ι... and other of two digits: ει and οι,υι… And this for technical (comprehension, etymologycal) reasons, as we saw in the book "Τhe Greek system of writing", A. Krasana'ki.

b) The diphthongs are distinguished by the two digits letters with the “διαλυτικά» (diaresis, resolvents marks) and the accentual mark: παϊδάκια, δυϊκός, ολόϊδιος, θεϊκός, Μάιος.. (τα: αϊ, εϊ, οϊ.. = diphthong, two sounds of word) & παιδάκια, θείος (τα: αι, ει.. = two digits letters), orthographic points that do not exist in the Latin writing so that the linguists of this writing tangle the diphthongs with the two digits letters and say error things (as that: αι, oι, υιpronounced before as α-ι, ο-ι, ου-ι…, ..), something that parrot, impermissible, and the current Greek linguists.

 

4) If in the ancient Greek the letter ω pronounced as oo, the letter η as εε, then:

a) The words eg: .: πλοίαρχοι, ανθρώπιναι, παράγωγη.. it would not be supposed they had accentual mark there that has, but a syllable below, after it is not possible is stressed word above from pro parali'gousa (= second syllable from final syllable). Then this short and long y that pronounced? .

b) Why exist  the: εε, αα, ιι… in the words: νέες & νήες, ευυπόληπτος, πλέετε, Αθηνά & Αθηνάα, μνάα, Αβραάμ, Ααρών, περιίσταμαι, διίσταμαι, διισχυρίσθη, διισχυρίσατο, έπλεε, ποιέεις, πειέει, ποίεε, ποιέετε, Ετεοκλέες,.., προορίζω, πρόοδος, προοίμιο.....;  

See and that charm of these and unanimous o & ω, η & υ.... we have help in the etymology of words in writing:: πρώτος & προ-ορίζω (with the two oo, we understand that we have complex word), δια, διάφορος & διίσταμαι  (with the two ιι we understand that we have complex word),

 

5) If the letters H and I and EI… in the ancient season they differed in the accent or if e.g. two digits letter EI pronounced as εϊ,… as says the Erasmus, then:

a) Why ancient they said ορθογραφία (= correct - spelling) and no ορθοφθογγία (= correct sounding)

b) Why the letters Η, Ω before the 5th/4th century before Christ doesn’t exist in the signs of Attica, Crete etc minus only in these with the Ionic alphabet? There they did not exist, because they had somehow different orthographic system.

c) The Plato ("Kraty'los") in one hand it wouldn't search it finds why does happen this and in other hand it would not say what it says, that is to say that letter H him we put instead I, when the thing is something long, the letter I him puts instead the H when the thing is something small'…. as well as that letter E in the word ΠΟΣΕΙΔΩΝ (= Neptune) has entered perhaps for decency, hence is not read etc.:

«Τω δε αυ  ιώτα προς τα λεπτά πάντα, α δη μάλιστα δια πάντων ιοι αν. Δια ταύτα το <<ιέναι>> και το <<ιεσθαι>> δια του ιώτα   απομιμείται….. Το δε αυ άλφα τω <<μεγάλω>> απέδωκε και  τω <<μήκει>> το ήτα, ότι μεγάλα τα γράμματα.   Εις δε το <<γογγύλον >> του  ου    δεόμενος σημείου τούτο πλείστον αυτω εις το  όνομα  ανεκέρασεν. (Κρατύλος 426 - 427  ),

 «Ποσειδώνα, το δε ε έγκειται ίσως ευπρεπείας ένεκα» (Κρατύλος 402 e)

 

 

2. The falsies for Phoenician or Egyptian generation of Greek Alphabet

 

A. Ancient Greek author Plato says that hear in Egypt a myth (legend) and this myth say that the Egyptian discover the letters. Plato says exactly:  «Επειδή φωνήν απειρον κατενόησεν είτε τις Θεός είτε και Θειος άνθρωπος, ως λόγος εν Αιγύπτω Θευ τινά τούτον γενέσθαι λέγων, ος πρώτος τα φωνήεντα εν τω απείρω κατενόησεν ουχ εν όντα αλλά πλείω, και πάλιν έτερα φωνής μεν ου, φθόγγου δε μετέχοντα τινός, αριθμόν τινά τούτων είναι, τρίτον δε είδος γραμμάτων διεστήσατο τα νυν λεγόμενα άφωνα ημιν, το μετά τούτο διήρει τ`α τε αφθογγα και άφωνα μέχρι ενός εκάστου, και τα φωνήεντα και τα μέσα..... ως ουσαν γραμματικήν τέχνη επεφθέγξατο προσειπών. (Πλάτωνα, Φίληβος 18 c)

 Due to it’s (after the text of Plato) to day some people say that the Greeks took his alphabet from Egyptians, something is not correct, because:

a)       The above myth says that the Egyptians discover the Egyptian letters, not the Greek. The Greek letters are another story, a story with same linguistic theme.

b)      The icons of Greek letters, the amount of Greek letters and the mechanism of Greek writing system are entirely different from Egyptian, as we see later.

c)       The amount of Egyptian letters and the mechanism of Egyptian writing system are entirely same with Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic … writing systems. The different is only at the icons of the letters.

 

B. Ancient Greek author Herodotus says that according to his opinion (“opinion” not inquiry with evidences) the Greeks took the alphabet from the Phoenicians. He say exactly: «Οι δε Γεφυραιοι, των ήσαν οι  φονέες οι  Ιππάρχου, ως μεν αυτοί λέγουσι, εγεγόνεσαν εξ Ερετρίης την αρχήν, ως δε εγώ αναπυνθανόμενος  ευρίσκω, ήσαν Φοίνικες των συν Κάδμω απικομένων Φοινίκων … Οι δε Φοίνικες ούτοι, οι συν Κάδμω απικόμενοι, των ήσαν οι Γεφυραιοι, άλλα τε πολλά οικίσαντες ταύτην την χώρην εσήγαγον διδασκαλία ες τους Έλληνες και δη τα γράμματα ……………>> (Ηρόδοτος, Tερψιχόρη 57 - 59)

 

In English:

The Gephyraei, to whom the two men who killed Hipparchus belonged, came, by their own account, originally from Eretria; but i suppose, I have myself looked into the matter and find that they were really Phoenicians, descendants of those who came with Cadmus to what is now Boeotia where they were allotted the district of Tanagra to make their homes in. After the expulsion of the Cadmeans by the Argiva, the Gephyraei were expelled by the Boeotians and took refuge in Athens, where they were received into the community on certain stated terms, which excluded them from a few privileges not worth mentioning here…….

The Phoenicians who came with Cadmus  - amongst whom were the Gephyraei - introduced into Greece, after their settlement in the country, a number of accomplishments, of which the most important was writing, an art till then, as i think, unknown to the Greeks. At first they used the same characters as all the other Phoenicians, but as time went on, and they changed their language, they also changed the shape of their letters. At that period most of the Greeks in the neighbourhood were Ionians; they were taught these letters by the Phoenicians and adopted them, with a few alterations, for their own use, continuing to refer to them as the Phoenician characters - as was only right, as the Phoenicians had introduced them. The Ionians also call paper 'skins' - a survival from antiquity when paper was hard to get, and they did actually use goat and sheepskins to write on.

Indeed, even today many foreign peoples use this material. In the temple of Ismenian Apollo at Theba in Boeotia I have myself seen cauldrons with inwritingions cut on them in Cadmean characters - most of them not very different from the Ionian. There were three of these cauldrons; one was inscribed: 'Amphityron dedicated me from the spoils of the Teleboae' and would date from about the time of Laius, son of Labdacus, grandson of Polydorus and great-grandson of Cadmus……(For more see the book of Herodotus E’)

 

Due to it’s someone’s having said that the letters of Greek alphabet are made up by Phoenicians and the ancient Phoenicia was in oversight of Asia, across from Cyprus.

These alls are wrong, mistake, because:

1) The Phoenician and Egyptian writing systems are entirely different from the Greek.The Greek writing in one hand has letters for all phthongs (sound of words), for all consonants and for all vowels and in other hand has (there are) homophone vowels letters: O & , H & Y & I… by which we suggest (using them by grammatical rules) the etymology (part of speech, gender, number etc) of words or distinguishing the homophone words, e.g.: λίρα & λύρα, καλό & καλώ...

καλό (with –o = good, adjective) & καλώ (= I cal, verb)

The Phoenician and the Egypt writing had letters only for the consonants (= b, d, g, p, v, f, t, th, c, h, m, n, l, r, s, z) and for long vowels (aleph = aa, ayin = uu, yod = ii).  Thereat the Phoenician and Egyptian alphabet does not have letters for the simple vowel: α, ε, ο, ι, ου and for the homophone letters: ω & o, η & υ & ι & οι & ει & υι, ε & αι...

The Phoenician and Egyptian letters aleph, ayin, yont = two sounds: αα,  ουου, ii, as in words: Αβραάμ (Abraham), Ισαάκ (Isaac), διίσταμαι

The Phoenician and Egyptian consonant letters: beth, gimel, daleth = two sounds: mp, nk, nt,

 

Long and sort vowels there are not in Greek writing. The Greek letters alpha, ου, Iota (άλφα, ου, ιώτα) = one sound  α, ου/u, ι. The letters βήτα, γάμα, δέλτα = one sound: β, γ, δ.

The Phoenician and Egyptian alphabets had letters for consonants sounds as the Greek alphabet, but it did not mean anything, because in one hand and according to ancient writers Dosiades, Plato etc consonant letters are founded and in senior writings (ancient Egyptian writing, ancient Cretan writing, Cuneiform writing etc) and in other hand the letters of Phoenician and Egyptian alphabets had shame (are pictures) of animals, men etc (Aleph= the picture; beth = house etc) and the letters of Greek alphabet are pictures of pronunciations organs (lips, mouth, tongue etc) each sound: α, β, γ..

2) According to the ancient Greek writer Plutarch (see the book «Κακοήθειες Ηροδότου»), Gephyraiei, Cadmus (= the founder of Thebes) and his ascendants (Oedipus, Eteoclees etc) was Greeks and the legends of Herodotus are lies of rage, which he said because:

a) The people of Theba went by the part of Persians and non by part of the Greeks in Persian – Greek war.

b) Gephyraei (or the democratic brothers Armodius and Aristogeiton = the killers of tyrannous Ipparchus etc) was by the part of democratic people in Athens and Herodotus was by the part of tyrannous Ipparchus.

<<Τους δε Θηβαίους πρώτον μεν φησι «μετά των Ελλήνων  εόντας μάχεσθαι  υπ’ ανάγκης εχόμενους»… αποσχισθέντες οι Θηβαίοι χείρας τε προέτειναν και ήσον των βαρβάρων, λέγοντες τον αληθέστατον των λόγων, ως μήδισαν και γη και ύδωρ έδοσαν βασιλεί, υπό δ’ ανάγκης εχόμενοι εις ΘερμοπύλαςΕιτ΄ ου δηλ`ος εστιν ιδιαν τινά προς Θηβαίους έχων οργήν και δυσμένειαν, υφ’ ης ου μόνο διέβαλε ψευδώς και αδίκως την πόλιν, αλλ ουδέ του πιθανού  της διαβολής εφρόντισεν, ουδ  όπως αυτός εαυτω τα αναντια λέγων παρ’  ολίγους  ανθρώπους ου  φανειται συνειδώς;>> (865, β)

Ειτ΄ ου δηλ`ος εστιν ιδιαν τινά προς Θηβαίους έχων οργήν και δυσμένειαν, υφ’ ης ου μόνο διέβαλε ψευδώς και αδίκως την πόλιν, αλλ ουδέ του πιθανού  της διαβολής εφρόντισεν, ουδ  όπως αυτός εαυτω τα αναντια λέγων παρ’  ολίγους  ανθρώπους ου  φανειται συνειδώς;>> (Plutarch, Kakoithies by Herodotus 865, β)

3) According to the Aristotle the killers of tyrannous Ipparchus was not Phoenicians (not the Gephyraei), but Greeks, the democratic brothers Armodius and Aristogeiton, and for that the Athenians made celebrates on his honor: <<…..διατίθησι δ' αγώνα τον επιτάφιον, και τοις τελευτηκόσιν εν τω πολέμω και Αρμόδιω και Αριστογείτονι εναγίσματα ποιε…>>  (Αθηναίων Πολιτεία, Κεφ. ΚΑ' "Οι  εννέα άρχοντες).

4) According to Andokithes, killers of tyrannous Ipparchus were not Phoenicians (not the Gephyraei), but Greeks, the democratic brothers Armodius and Aristogeiton, and for that the Athenians made celebrates on his honor, see:

Εδοξε τη βουλη καί τω δημω.....

Εάν τις δημοκρατίαν καταλύη τήν Αθήνησιν.....

Εάν δέ τις κτείνων τινά τούτων αποθάνη ή επιχειρών,  ευ ποιήσω αυτόν τε καί τούς παιδας τούς εκείνου καθ άπερ Αρμόδιον τε καί Αριστογείτονα καί τούς απογόνους αυτών...      (Ανδοκίδης, "Περί των μυστηρίων" 96 - 98)

 5) According to the ancient Greek writers Euripides, Aeschylus etc on one hand the Cadmus (= the founder of Thebes) and his ascendants (Eteoclees, Polinicis, Oedipus etc) was not Phoenicians, but Greeks, they spoken Greek etc and on the other hand the ancient land of Phoenicia (where was Master Aginor, from where came from Cadmus and established the town of Thebes, from where came the prince Europe etc) was a island on Europe, in western part of Greece and of Italy, in the Turrinian sea and not a land in Asia

 

<<… Κάδμος ηνίκ’ ήλθε γην

τήνδ’ εκλιπών Φοίνισαν εναλία χθόνα…..>> (Ευριπίδη, Φοίνισσαι 1- 10)

 

 Τύριον οιδμα λιπουσ' εβαν ακροθίνια Λοξία 

Φοινίσσας από νάσου   Φοίβω δούλα μελάθρων,

 ιν' υπό δειράσι νιφοβόλοις  Παρνασσου κατενάσθη,   

Ιόνιον κατά πόντον ελάτα πλεύσασα

περιρρύτω υπέρ ακαρπίστων πεδίων  Σικελίας

Ζεφύρου πνοαις ιππεύσαντος, εν ουρανω κάλλιστον κελάδημα. 

πόλεος εκπροκριθεισ' εμας καλλιστεύματα Λοξία 

Καδμείων εμολον γαν κλεινων Αγηνοριδαν ομογενεις επί Λάϊου 

πεφθεισ' ενθάδε πύργους.... (Ευριπίδης, Φοίνισσαι 210-220)

 

«Θήβας πυρώσας τάσδε Πολυνείκης Θεοις

 ασπίδας εθηκε; μηδέποτ', ω τέκνον, κλέος

τοιόνδε σοι γένοιθ' υφ' Ελλήνων λαβειν».. (Ευριπίδης, Φοίνισσαι 580)  

 

«ξέναι γυναίκες, είπατ΄, εκ ποίας πάτρας  

Ελληνικοισι δώμασιν πελάζετε;» (Ευριπίδης, Φοίνισσαι  278 279)

 

«Κάδμος εμολε τάνδε γαν Τύριος,

ω τετρασκελής μόσχος αδάματον πέσημα... (Ευριπίδης, Φοίνισσαι 640-670)

 

 « Ω γης Ελλάδος στρατηλάτες

 Δαναω άριστης, οιπερ ηλθατ΄  ενθάδε,

 Κάδμου τε λαός, μήτε Πολυνείκους χάριν.. (Ευριπίδης, Φοίνισσαι 1220 -12230)

 

« σφυρών σιδηρα κέντρα διαπείρας μέσον΄ 

όθεν νιν Ελλάς ωνόμαζεν Οιδίπους  (Ευριπίδης, Φοίνισσαι 26-29)

 

«Ω Ζευ τε κα`ι Γη και Πολιουχοι θεοί,

Αρα τ' Εριν`υς πατρός η μεγασθενής,

μή μοι πόλιν γε πρυμνόθεν πανώλεθρον

εκθαμνίσητε    δηάλωτον, Ελλάδος

φθόγγον  χέουσαν,  και δόμους εφεστίους,

ελευθέραν δε γην τε και Κάδμου πόλιν

ζεύλησι  δουλίησι μήποτε σχεθείν»...    (Αισχύλος, Επτά επί Θήβας 69-80)

 

6) As nowadays we write some Greek words with Greek and Latin characters the same was in ancient times in Theba with the Phoenician and Greek Characters

7) According to Dosiades (ancient writer) the letters are made up from Cretans: "Δοσιάδης δε εν Κρήτη φησίν ευρεθήναι αυτά (τα γράμματα)… (Διόδωρος, Ε. Μπέκερ, "Ελλ. Ανέκδοτα" ΙΙ 783,14). Something that perhaps is correct if we speak generally for the inventor of letters and not especially for the inventor of to day Greek alphabet.

8) According to Diodoros Siceliotis, Phoenicians are not inventors of letters, but Pelasgians (ancestors of Greeks). Simple Phoenicians transformer (change schema of) the letters: «…φασίν τους Φοίνικας ουκ εξ αρχής ευρείν, αλλά τους τύπους των γραμμάτων μεταθείναι μόνον…». (Διόδωρος, Σικελιώτης, βίβλος 5, 74 ). Something that perhaps is correct if we speak generally for the inventor of letters and not especially for the inventor of to day Greek alphabet. Diodoros Siceliotis say exactly (in new Greek):

<<Στους Έλληνες λέγεται ότι πρώτος ανακάλυψε τους ρυθμούς και το τραγούδι ο Λίνος και όταν ο Κάδμος έφερε από τη Φοινίκη τα λεγόμενα γράμματα, πρώτος αυτός μετέφερε στην ελληνική γλώσσα, όρισε την ονομασία του καθενός και χάραξε το σχήμα τους. Γενικώς όλα μαζί τα γράμματα ονομάστηκαν φοινικικά, επειδή μεταφέρθηκαν στους Έλληνες από τους Φοίνικες, ειδικά όμως, επειδή πρώτοι οι Πελασγοί χρησιμοποίησαν τους φερόμενους χαρακτήρες προσαγορεύτηκαν Πελασγικά……. Ο Λίνος, λοιπόν, λένε πως συνέταξε με Πελασγικά γράμματα αφήγημα με τις πράξεις του πρώτου Διόνυσου και τους λοιπούς μύθους και το άφησε στα απομνημονεύματά του. Με τον ίδιο τρόπο χρησιμοποίησαν τα Πελασγικά γράμματα ο Ορφέας και ο Προναπίδης, που ήταν δάσκαλος του Ομήρου και εμπνευσμένος τραγουδοποιός. Το ίδιο και ο Θυμοίτης…. (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης, βίβλος 3, 67)

Οι Ηλιάδες ( = οι αρχαίοι κάτοικοι της Ρόδου) αναδείχθηκαν ανώτεροι από όλους στη μόρφωση και κυρίως στην αστρονομική. Εισηγήθηκαν πολλά σχετικά με τη ναυτιλία και όρισαν τον χωρισμό της ημέρας σε ώρες….. Ο (Ρόδιος) Ακτίς βάζοντας πλώρη για την Αίγυπτο ίδρυσε εκεί τη λεγόμενη Ηλιούπολη, δίνοντας το όνομα του πατέρα του (Ήλιου). Από αυτόν έμαθαν αργότερα οι Αιγύπτιοι τα θεωρήματα της αστρονομίας. Όταν, όμως, έγινε ο κατακλυσμός στην Ελλάδα, από τις βροχοπτώσεις χάθηκαν οι περισσότεροι άνθρωποι. Μαζί με εκείνα συνέβηκε να καταστραφούν και τα γραπτά μνημεία και γι αυτή την αιτία, οι Αιγύπτιοι, βρίσκοντας την ευκαιρία, ιδιοποιήθηκαν όλα τα περί αστρονομίας και επειδή, λόγω της άγνοιάς τους, οι Έλληνες δεν μπορούσαν πλέον να επικαλεσθούν τις γραπτές μαρτυρίες, ενισχύθηκε η άποψη ότι πρώτοι οι Αιγύπτιοι ανακάλυψαν τα άστρα. Με τον ίδιο τρόπο, μολονότι οι Αθηναίοι ίδρυσαν πόλη στην Αίγυπτο, που την ονόμαζαν Σαίνς, το γεγονός ξεχάστηκε λόγω του κατακλυσμού. Γι αυτές, λοιπόν, τις αιτίες πολλές γενιές αργότερα ο Κάδμος του Αγήνορα θεωρήθηκε ότι πρώτος αυτός έφερε τα γράμματα από τη Φοινίκη στην Ελλάδα και από τον καιρό του Κάδμου και στο εξής πίστευαν για τους Έλληνες πως έκαναν πάντα συμπληρωματικές ανακαλύψεις στην επιστήμη των γραμμάτων, καθώς ένα είδος καθολικής άγνοιας κατείχε τους Έλληνες…….  ( Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης, βίβλος 5, 57)

Στις Μούσες, δόθηκε από τον πατέρα τους, η ανακάλυψη των γραμμάτων και η σύνθεση των επών, η λεγόμενη ποιητική. Σε εκείνους που λένε πως οι Σύριοι είναι οι εφευρέτες των γραμμάτων, πως οι Φοίνικες  τα έμαθαν από εκείνους  και τα παρέδωσαν στους Έλληνες  και πως αυτοί οι Φοίνικες ήταν εκείνοι που έπλευσαν με τον Κάδμο στην Ευρώπη και πως γι αυτό οι Έλληνες ονομάζουν τα γράμματα φοινικικά, απαντούν πως οι Φοίνικες δεν ήταν οι αρχικοί εφευρέτες και πως το μόνο που έκαναν ήταν να αλλάξουν τη μορφή των γραμμάτων και, καθώς η πλειοψηφία των ανθρώπων τα χρησιμοποίησε αυτό το είδος των γραμμάτων, γι αυτό τους δόθηκε η παραπάνω ονομασία…>> (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης. βίβλος 5, 57)

 

 

 

FALSE COMPARE TABLE

 

 

Phoenician alphabet is different from Greek

 

Here we see a false table, because:

1) The Greek writing has many kinds of letters (small, capital, homophones etc) and here we see only one kind.

2) In ancient Greece each town had different alphabet and here we see only one. In ancient attic alphabet there is the letters M,  L, Λ.. = in Cretan Σ, Λ, Γ

3) The Phoenician letters are from ideograms (have schema of animals, things etc), but have phonetic pronunciation. The Greek letters are not from ideograms. In Greek writing the letters have two or more schemas (icon), capital: A, E, Λ, Δ, Μ…, small: α, ε, λ, δ, βHomophone: O(o) & Ω(ω), Υ(υ) & Ι(ι) & Η(η) & ΟΙ(οι)…  for technical reasons (distinguish homophone words, e.g.: Νίκη & νίκη, λύρα & λίρα, καλή & καλοί  Something that there is not in Phoenician writing.

 The scheme of Greek letters is from the mouth organs (lips, teeth etc) to suggest his pronunciation, e.g.: Λ(λ) = tongue up and internal, Β(β) = close lips  and full with  air…

The Phoenician and Egyptian alphabets had letters for consonants sounds as the Greek alphabet, but it did not mean anything, because in one hand consonant letters are founded and in senior writings (ancient Cretan writing, Cuneiform writing etc) and in other hand the letters of Phoenician and Egyptian alphabets had shame (are pictures) of animals, men etc (Aleph= the picture; beth = house etc) and the letters of Greek alphabet are pictures of pronunciations organs (lips, mouth, tongue etc) each sound: α, β, γ..

If someone looks at Phoenician inwritingions, he will see that the Phoenicians letters have more one schemes, some of these are from Greek. That’s all.

 

 

 

PHOENICIAN ALPHABET AND PHOENICIAN WRITING SYSTEM

 

Mechanisms of Phoenician and Egyptian (hieroglyphics) writing system are same, but entirely different from Greek. In Phoenician and Egypt writing system (writing):

1)  We write from right to left (in Greek from left to right)

2) There are letters only for the consonants: p, v, f…., for long vowels (the case of two: aa, oo, ii…) and for groups: x, b, d, g = ks, mp, nt, γκ.

Long vowels are the case of two aa, uu, ii… after from a consonant, e.g.: Abr-aa-m, Dan-ii-l, m-uu-mer, Ααρών, διίσταμαι, πλέετε   

Sort vowels are the case of 5 vowels: α, ε, ο, ι, ου. In writing there is small signs for each vowel, that putted on or down of consonant that have vowel, but usually omitted.

 

 

PHOENICIAN ALPHABET

 

 

(In fact we see here an alphabet with Greek and Phoenician letters, letters from two alphabets and not clear Phoenician alphabet)

In Phoenician alphabet there are 22 letters.

The Phoenician and Egyptian letters: Beth, Gimel, Daleth = two sounds of consonants, like Latin letters: mp/b, nk/g, nt/d and different from Greek letters B, Γ, Δ  = V, GH (like you), DH  (like those, not as thing) = one sound of consonants.

The Phoenician and Egyptian letters aleph, ayin, yod = two sounds: αα,  oo/ουου, ii, as in words: Abr-aa-m, Dan-ii-l, m-uu-mer, Αα-ρών, δ-ιίσταμαι… and different from Greek a, o, u, i.

 

Long and sort vowels there are not in Greek writing. The Greek letters α, ο, ου, ι = one sound 

The Phoenician and the Egypt writing had letters only for the consonants (= b, d, g, p, v, f, t, th, c, h, m, n, l, r, s, z), for long vowels (aleph = aa, ayin = uu, yod = ii) and for groups: X = ks, d = nt, b = mp, g = gk.  Here there are not letters for the simple vowel: α, ε, ο, ι, ου and for the homophone letters: ω & o, η & υ & ι & οι & ει & υι, ε & αι...

The Greek writing in one hand has letters for all phthongs (for all sound of words, for all consonants and for all vowels) and in other hand has (there are) homophone vowels letters: O & , H & Y & I… by which we suggest (using them by grammatical rules) the etymology (part of speech, gender, number etc) of words or distinguishing the homophone words, e.g.: λίρα & λύρα, καλό & καλώ...

καλό (with –o = good, adjective) & καλώ (= I cal, verb)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Samples of Phoenician scripts

 ( inscriptions, writings)

 

 

 

phin3

 

2

 

 

 

 

3. The falsies for Long - short duration letters and for iconic letters

 

According to the Plato (See the book: "KRATYLOS") the Greek writing is phthogical (“φθογγική” = by each sound of the word) and at the same time iconic ( “εικονική” = by expression of picture). The letters Ω, H, Y are parallax of the letters I, 0 for reasons of better expression. The unanimous letters of alphabet O & Ω, H & I & ΕΙ… there are in order to they attend in the writing apart from the sound and the icon (picture) of that we write, in order that the reader has apart from his sound and ocular picture of the things. We put in writing of a word the letter I instead the letters Y, I, when the meaning from word that we write is something thin, small and for penetration. We put the letter H instead the I, Y when this is something long, with length. We put the letter O instead Ω when this is something round (circular, global) etc

According to the Alexandrines grammatical (secretaries - writers in bibliotheca of Alexandria Egypt), see the books «Grammatical Art " by Dion. Thraca, "Connection of names” by Dion. Alicarnaseus etc., the unanimous letters O & Ω, Η & I & Y… there are in the writing, because old did not exist only five vowels (= the sounds: α, ε, ι, o, oυ) , but seven (= the sounds: α