THE AUTHENTIC HISTORY
OF THE MACEDONIANS
RESEARCH – STUDY
By A. KRASSANAKIS
Translation in English
THE ORIGIN (NATIONALITY) , THE LANGUAGE,
THE STATE AND WORLD-WIDE CONTRIBUTION
OF THE MACEDONIANS
ORIGIN, NATIONALITY, LANGUAGE
AND THE NATION (CITY-STATE) OF THE MACEDONIANS
A. THE ORIGIN AND THE NATIONALITY OF THE MACEDONIANS
THE MACEDONIANS ARE DORIANS,
HENCE AUTHENTIC, PURE GREEKS/HELLENES
ancient historian Herodotus (A, 57 -
The ancient historian Herodotus also reports that initially all the world was the residence of barbarians, and that afterwards the Dorians broke-away and created a separate nation, the Greek nation, and subsequently joined this nation all the Pelasgoeans (sects/races of the Pelasgoeans, who were the Dorians, Iones or Athenians, the Aeoleans or Thessalians and the Achaeans or Argoeans), and also several other barbaric sects (races), i.e.:
“Later (the king
The Athenians had never left
“The Greek fleet in the Battle of Salamis consisted of
the following: From Peloponnesus the Lakedaimoneans/Spartans with 16 ships,
the Corinthians with an equal number of ships, which is what they also
contributed to the battle of Artemision. The Sikyoneans with ten ships, the
Epidaureans with ten, the Troizeneans with five, the Ermioneans with three.
All these, except the Ermioneans belong to the Dorian and Makednon/Macedonian
nation, who came to
2. The ancient writer Stravon (Geographics 7), in regard to the nationality of the Macedonians, clearly reports that the Macedonians are Greeks, i.e.:
«Εστίν με ουν Ελλάς και η Μακεδονία, νυνί μέντοι τη φύσει των τόπων ακολουθούντες και τω σχήματι χωρίς έγνωμεν από της άλλης Ελλάδος τάξαι και συνάψαι προς όμορον αυτής Θράκης…» (Στράβων Γεωγραφικά, 7).
3. The ancient writer Apollodoros (C 8) reports that the Macedonians are
from Pelasgoean origin. Specifically he reports that the children of Zeus and
The ancient writer Appian reports that: “The Macedonians boast about their Argoean origin”,
5. The vice regent (and later king) Amyntas of Macedonia proclaims to the king of Persia Farnabazo through those he has sent to ask him for land and water as symbols of subjugation, the following: “to your king who has sent you here make it known that one Greek (Hellene), the regent of Macedonia, has treated you extremely well and with great care… ( Herodotus, book E, 20).
6. The king of Macedonia Alexander A, son of Amyntas, goes to Athens and
makes a speech (as a Greek himself) warning the Athenians and the other
Greeks (Athenians and Spartans) concerning the intention of the Persians to
invade Greece. They at once, upon hearing this, hastened to
the outpost where they found Alexander, who addressed them as follows: "Men of Athens, that which
I am about to say I entrust to your honour; and I compel you to keep it
secret from all except Pafsanias, so that it may not be used against my own
destruction. Had I not have greatly at heart the common welfare of all
7 The Old testament (Daniel G and Maccavian Ch. 1, 1 - 10) clearly report that Alexander The Great and the Macedonians are Greeks. (For more see later)
TO THE PERSIAN KING DARIUS
(In this letter, Alexander the Great explains who he is and his army’s nationality, and the exact reasons for his military campaign against the Persian King Darius)
“Your ancestors invaded
AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES
The Macedonians participated in the Olympic Games, competition allowed only for Greeks, while the day that Alexander The Great was born Parmenion defeated the Illyrians in a big battle, i.e.: “In regard to Alexander’s origin from his father’s side that he was descendant of Hercules by way of Karanos, and that from his mother’s side he was descendant of Aiakos, by way of Neoptolemos, these are henceforth accepted facts…. And to Philip II, who had just conquered Potidea simultaneously came three messages. First, that the Illyrians were defeated by Parmenion in a big battle, second, that he had won in the horse-riding event in the Olympic Games and third, the birth of Alexander, (Plutarch, Alexander 1 - 3).
Macedonian Olympic champions: King Alexander
A’, in the 80th Olympic Games, 460 B.C. ran the Stadium and came-in second by
the slight margin of the chest. King Archelaos Perdikas, competed in the 93rd
Olympic Games, 408 B.C. and won in
Similarly biographer Plutarch reports that Philip II, father of Alexander The Great, engraved in the currencies the victories of his chariots in Olympia (see Plutarch Alexander 4), as well as that Parmenion, Philip’s general and Alexander The Great, won in horse racing in the Olympic Games (see Plutarch, Alexander 3).
THE GREAT FLOOD (CATACLYSM)
AND THE BROTHERS: GRAIKOS, HELLENE, MAKEDON, AND MAGNIS
The ancient writer Hesiod (Catalogue of Women or Eoiae), who is one of the most ancient writers of the world, reports that Graikos,
Hellene, Magnis and Makednon, that
is to say the ancestors of current day Hellenes or Greeks are brothers, the children of Zeus and Pandora, daughter of Defkalion, the only person that survived
with his wife the great flood (cataclysm) that occurred during his reign (the
flood of Defkalion), which is identified with that of Noah by the Jews and
according to the Pario Chronicle the flood of Defkalion occurred in 1265
before Diognetus = 1529 B.C., “and the daughter in
the house of the noble Defkalion, Pandora with the king of the gods Zeus,
heavily engulfed in love with the god of the sky and thunder gave birth to
the joyful Graikos. Herself again conceiving with Zeus gave birth for the
thunderbolt god two sons, Magnis and Makedon the delightful, who lived in the
slopes around the mountain ranges of Pieria and
Τhe Pario Chronicle and the ancient writers
Τhe Pario Chronicle also reports that in 1521 B.C. Hellene, the son of Defkalion, reigned in Fthiotida and then renamed Hellenes all those who previously were called Graikoi.
AND THE EGYPTIANS
The ancient writer Diodoros reports that the Egyptians claim that the Greeks just as the rest of the other people of the world are descendants of the human couple that was created first in Egypt, as well as that the country from Pontus up to Attica, Peloponnesus, etc., hence the country that today is called Greece, was called by the Egyptians Macedonia, a name taken from Macedon, the son of the king of Egypt Osiri and Isida, that is to say Macedon, who became king of this country when it was conquered by the Egyptians during the reign of Osiri. That is to say, the Egyptians say something that is roughly the same that is being said by the Jews (that is, their descendants are all the other nations), and simultaneously correlating Greece with Macedonia, or simply calling Macedonia what we call Greece, i.e.: “The Egyptians claim that during the genesis (creation) of life, the first people were created in Egypt and from there they spread in the various places of the world (planet), and this because the climate in Egypt is temperate and also due to the natural fertility of the areas around Nile….”. Diodoros Sikeliotis, (Book 1, 10)).
“Osiri’s sons were Anoubios and Macedon, who
were known for their bravery. They wore elements of skin from animals on
their equipment. Anoubios wore dog-skin and Macedon wolf-bust... Osiris while
touring the world passed from
B. THE LANGUAGE OF THE ANCIENT MACEDONIANS
The ancient writers, Greeks and Romans, report that the ancient Macedonians were Greeks and spoke Greek, i.e.:
“…the Aetoleans, Akarnaneans and Macedonians, were people who spoke the same language, and who from time to time were united or separated due to insignificant causes and events that occur in the course of human events..." Livius, (History of Rome, book XXX paragraph ΧΧΙΧ).
The Aetoleans and Akarnaneans were undeniably Greek races. In one other circumstance Livius writes: “… General Paulus sat in his official seat surrounded by a crowd of Macedonians… his statements were translated in Greek and were repeated by the interpreter Gnaeus Octavius…”. Livius, (History of Rome, Book XLV, paragraph XXIX). If the crowd of Macedonians in this gathering did not speak Greek, then why the Romans felt the need to translate the statements of Paulus in Greek?
It is noted that:
That the Macedonians were Greeks and that they spoke and wrote always Greek.
Irrefutable proofs are also the Macedonian signs (i.e., see here the
Macedonian inscription from the hommages of Macedonians in Athena Poliada, as
well as, the Macedonian currencies), i.e., see here the currency of Philip
and Alexander, to which as we see, the Macedonians not only spoke and wrote
Greek, but had also the same religion, as well as the same customs and traditions
with the other Greeks, since after all in the Macedonian currencies we see
the star and sun of the Dorians, and other..(compare for example with the
currencies of Itanos, Lyktos, Ierapytnas, and others of
b) Because ancient Greece was not a united, single state, but many “city-states”, each one of them had also developed its own language which today it is called dialect - the reason for which the ancient writers report, for example: “Alexander spoke Macedonian”, “Macedonian language” “ Greek language” (= the common language) and others, but also for example: Philip the Macedonian, Minoas the Kretan, Apollodoros the Athenian, and others.
c) Roughly, the ancient Greek dialects-languages were: Dorian (spoken by the Spartans, Macedonians, and others.), Ionean (spoken by the Athenians, the islanders, and others.), and Aeolian (spoken by the Thessalians, and others). Something that is in effect, to a limited degree, even today. A difference, for example, in the language of the Macedonians from other Greek dialects (languages) is said to be the following: “ the [Delfians do not use the letter B in place of F, as the Macedonians do that says [Bilippos], [Balakros] and [Beroniki], and instead of the letter P they naturally say “patein” “batein” and “pikron” “bikron”. “Obysous” (= the month of oracles), therefore, is “Opysous”.
C. THE COUNTRY (NATION) AND THE CAPITAL OF THE MACEDONIANS
ancient writer Thucydides (E and Z) reports that
The ancient writer Skylakas (Greece’s Tour), in regard to the country of the Macedonians, reports: «Από δε Πηνετού ποταμού Μακεδόνες εισίν έθνος και κόλπος Θερμαίος. Πρώτη πόλις Μακεδονίας Ηράκλειον, Δίον, Πύδνα πόλις Ελληνίς. Μεθώνη πόλις Ελληνίς και Αλιάκμων ποταμός, Αλωρός πόλις και ποταμός Λυδίας, Πέλλα πόλις και βασίλειον εν αυτή και ανάπλους εις αυτήν ανά τον Λυδίαν. Άξιος ποταμός, Εχέδωρος ποταμός, Θέρμη πόλις. Αίνεια Ελληνίς, Παλλήνη άκρα μακρά εις το πέλαγος ανατείνουσα, και πόλεις αίδε εν τη Παλλήνη Ελληνίδες. Ποτίδαια εν τω μέσω το ισθμόν εμφράττουσα, Μένδη, Άφυτις, Θραμβηϊς, Σκιώνη, Κανάστραιον της παλλήνης ιερόν ακρωτήριον. (Σκύλακας, Περίπλους- περί Μακεδονίας)
Cities of Macedonia: Aigai, Pella, Bergina, Orestis, Argos, Orestikon, Heraklia, Dion, Thessaloniki, Amfipolis, Philippoi, Methoni, Pydna, Antigoneia, Gariskos, Olynthos, Aiani, Eratyra, Gortynia, Atalanti, Eidomeni, Gortynia, Arnissa, Apollonia and others.
It is also noted, that:
1) Herodotus reports that in
2) Neighbors of the Macedonians were the
Thraceans (Greek race), the Skytheans (region of current day
NAME AND ORIGIN
The ancient writer St. Vyzantios reports that the
Philip II of
In addition, the ancient writer Stravon reports that
Kassandros in 316 B.C. united and gathered the people of the various
districts of the Thermaic gulf into a single city which he named after his
ETYMOLOGY OF THE NAME “MAKEDNOS” AND “
The name “Macedonia”, from which derived: Macedon(ios) = Macedonian, Macedon (Greek Μακεδονία > Μακεδον(ίος) – Μακεδών), such as: Magnis, Maketis and other, etymologically derive from the Dorian root «mak-» from which derive the following: makos or in the Ionian dialect “mikos” (= length, long ) and magnus (= big = long, such as macaroni, spaghetti and other), as well as the compound words: Macedonia, makednos … In Odyssey (G' 106) it is reported as “οία τε φύλλα μακεδνής αιγείρειο”, where the word “μακεδνης = makednis” reveals the adjective “makednos, that is translated into ‘evmikei’, that is to say with ‘makos’ or (in the Ionian dialect) «mikos”, meaning ‘length’ and consequently “Makednos” meaning ‘maketis (evmikeis = tall’, referring to men and Macedonians = ‘evmikeis = tall men, and thus “Macedonia” = the long country.
Specifically, the name “Maked(a)nos” is a compound word, derived from “makos” and “έd(a)nos” or “ed(a)nόs”. The word “makos” or mak(r)os or (in the Ionian dialect) mikos” = length, long (Latin maks > max = Greek megas or magnis); from which derive: big, more, major, magnus, grand, such as macaroni (spaghetti)… However, different is the word: “makkos” with two ‘kk’ or contemporarily “makos”. The word “edanos” Iliad (N, 172) with the tone in the suffix it means pleasant, “ednon” = sweet, savory, odoriferous and other, from “edos > idy (ηδύς) ” and “idos, idomai” = pleased, satisfied. With this etymology “makednos” means maketis = (long, tall) and edanos (sweet, likeable, beautiful) meaning man. The word “ed(a)nos,” with the tone in the first syllable means either the nation (derivative: “seat, capital”), Dorida, cradle of the Dorians or the gift - the gifts (from ‘edna’, ‘ednaomai’-‘omai’, ‘ednoo’-‘o’ = gifts, I give away), hence “ednoi” - mak-ednoi = Dorians - it is reminded that the Macedonians are of Dorian origin.
this etymology “makednos” = maketis = (long, tall). Dorian (that is, “Dorians
THE EMERGENCE OF THE MACEDONIANS,
AND THE MILITARY CAMPAIGN IN ASIA & AFRICA
1. THE EMERGENCE OF THE MACEDONIANS
Following the defeat of the Persians through the united (common) military campaign plan (League Of Corinth or Pan-Hellenic League), Thoukydedis, (A 17) reports that, the Pan-Hellenic union of the Greeks that had been created for the campaign against Persia was maintained only for a short period of time and soon thereafter the city-states began the long-lasting civil conflicts (Peloponnesian War, Voiotian War, and others), frequently with the participation of the Persians, for the purpose of gaining primacy, that is to say for who will gain control (hegemony) over the other city-states. Initially, the Greeks were divided into two groups (sides). On one side the Spartans and their allies and on the other the Athenians and their allies, whereby sometimes one side would win and other times the other. Taking advantage of this situation, a new Greek power emerged, that is, the organized military city-state (kingdom) of the Macedonians, which until then was being developed and organized secretly in the background. Specifically, according to the ancient writers:
In 359 B.C., the king of the Macedonians
Perdikas III was killed in battle against the Illyrians and succeeding him to
the throne was Philip II (359-336 B.C.), who with his son Alexander III
planned to make
In 357 B.C. Philip II occupied Amfipolis and Pydna.
In 356 B.C. Philip II defeats and drives away
the Illyrians. Isokrates, in his “ On Peace” speech, describes the
Pan-Hellenic Plan. The same year Alexander III is born. The same year Philip
occupied Potidea and the gold mines of
In 357 B.C. Philip II while attempting to
befriend the king of the Molossans of Hepeiros married his niece
In 352 B.C. Philip II campaigned in
In 344 B.C. the Thessalians elected Philip II
as their sovereign leader and shortly thereafter Messinia, Megalopolis,
The Third Sacred War (339 B.C.) gave Philip
II the opportunity to occupy Amfissa and Elateia and thus making clear his
intention for a new and final confrontation with
This confrontation took place at Chaironeia (338 B.C.), where he shattered in defeat the united army of the Athenians, Thebans, Fokeians, Corinthians and Achaeans.
Subsequently he subjugated all
It is Noted that:
Sikeliotis, in regard to the emergence of the Macedonians, writes
(Translations in modern Greek from the publications “kaktos”): “King Philip II, son of Amyntas, reigned in Macedonia
24 years and even though started out with minimal presumptions, he built the
foundations of his kingdom so as to becomes the most important in Europe and
while when he became its leader Macedonia was occupied and enslaved by the
Illyrians, he transformed it into the chief (principal) kingdom among the
many large city-states (nations) and cities. Because of his exceptional
abilities, he undertook the leadership (hegemony) of all Greece with the
consent of cities that were willingly subjugated to him, for having defeated
in battle those that plundered and pillaged the sacred Delphi and rebuilt the
sacred temple; gained the alliance of the Congress of the Amfiktyones and,
because of his respect and devotion to the gods, received as a reward the
trust of the defeated Fokeians. Subsequently, when he defeated in battle the
neighbouring nations: Illyrians, Paioneans, Thraceans, Skytheans and all
other neighbouring nations, he planned the dissolution of the
2) Thucydides, in regard to the Macedonians and their
growth and development reports: “The army of
Sitalkos, king of
They also drove away from the land called Eordia the
Eordians, from whom many have been killed, a few have settled around Fyska,
and from Almopia the Almopans. The so constituted kingdom of Timenidon
conquered and dominates even today parts of land of other races, such as the
Anthemountans, Gristoniams, Visaltians, and a lot of land from genuine
Macedonia. The entire, however, kingdom is called
They also besieged Eyropon but were unable
to conquer and occupy it. After that began to advance in the remainder of
Contrarily, Brasidas and Perdikkas advanced and attacked the Lygkistoans, from whom many ran away to escape and many were killed, while the remaining slipped to the hills, where they remained inactive. After that, triumphantly they remained there for two or three days, waiting for the Illyrians, who were to arrive precisely then as mercenaries of Perdikkas. The last one, after the passage of those days, wanted to advance against the towns of Arravaios and to not stay inactive. Brasidas, however, felt uneasy towards Mendi and was fearful that it might fall if the Athenians sailed there prior to his return. For this reason, and because the Illyrians had not yet arrived, he did not have the appetite to advance, but rather wanted to withdraw.
While discussing their contrary opinions, came the news that the Illyrians had betrayed Perdikkas and united with Arravaios, thus they both were of the opinion in favor of withdrawing, because they feared the Illyrians, who are a military, warlike nation. But due to the disagreement of opinion that the two have had there was no decision as to the timing of departure. Upon nightfall however, one of those unexplainable panics, to which large armies usually befall, immediately possessed the Macedonians and the mass of barbarian soldiers, and because they thought that the attacking enemy forces were numerically much larger, from what in reality they were and also that they would arrive any moment, they immediately ran away, directly towards one another. And because the two allied camps were far away from each other, it compelled Perdikkas, when he understood what was going on ( because at first he had not known what was happening), to depart without seen Brasidas. When at dawn Brasidas learned of the hastened departure of the Macedonians and the forthcoming arrival of the invading Illyrians and Arravaios, he too decided to depart immediately, and organized his soldiers into a square formation, and placing the tall soldiers in the middle. The younger soldiers he placed in such a way that they come out from the square formation to repel the enemy, from any point that he might attack, and he himself stayed in the rearguard of the formation in charge of three hundred select men, for defensive purposes to repel the enemy’s front guard. And before the enemy’s approach, hastily addressed his troops with the following arousing speech:
“Dear Peloponnesians, if I did not suspect that you are frightened, and because we are alone, and because the attacking forces against us are barbarians and numerically many more than us, I would limit myself to the usual and customary arousing speech, without willfully, as now, to pretend the teacher. Now however that we have been abandoned by our allies and we find ourselves before overwhelming, numerically large enemy forces, I will try with a few reminders and urging words to enlighten you with some most important points. This then, I Claim, that you must prove to be brave in battle and not simply when by chance you have allies in your side, but by way of your innate bravery, and to not be concerned with how numerically superior the enemy forces are, since you don't belong to city-states, where the many govern the few but on the contrary to city-states, where the many are governed by the few, whose predominance is due to their polemic supremacy. As for the barbarians, although, you now fear because you do not know them, your own experience from the last conflicts against the barbarians of Macedonia, by all that I infer and all that I’ m aware through hearsay, you must be convinced that they are not invincibly strong. Because, whenever a hostile force appears to be powerful, it is in fact weak, safe only by virtue of this information, which quickly is acquired by its opponents, that makes them more courageous, while there is no doubt that against a really powerful enemy one attacks with greater boldness, if he does not beforehand know the enemy’s real strength. The Illyrians, for those that do not know them are truly frightful, when one sees them attacking”, Thucydides, (D 124 - 126).
2. KING PHILIP II (PHILIP THE MACEDONIAN)
PHILIP II IS RESPONSIBLE
THE GREATNESS OF
King Philip II, the father of Alexander The Great,
The ancient writers Diodoros, Plutarch and others
report that Philip II was one of the most important kings of
“Having ascended to the throne (king Philip II, the son of Amyntas) in the most difficult times with the Illyrians; the kingdom virtually at the brink of collapse and its neighbors ready to put an end to its existence, it was only because of his brilliant political and military skills that he was able to re-establish order in the kingdom and become the supreme commander of Greece”, (Diodoros 16.1).
Specifically, after the battle of Chaironeia (338 B.C.), when no city in Greece dared not to respect the Macedonians, the then king of Macedonia Philip II, in early 337 B.C. convened in Corinth a congress of the Greeks/Hellenes (The League of Corinth or Hellenic League), a federation of Greek city-states to discuss and resolve the Greek issues (that is, civil conflicts, and the renewed intervention of the Persians into Greek internal affairs). In this congress it was agreed that peace must exist among all Greek city-states and member city-states constitutions to be guaranteed and protected.
The League would act to prevent any acts of
aggression or subversion against any member state. The League would maintain
an army and naval force levied from member city-states in approximate
proportion to their size. Philip II was declared Supreme Commander of the
League’s army with full authority to use these military forces in the war
The above-mentioned decision at “The League of Corinth” had been also taken because several Greek intellectuals of this period, e.g. the orator Isokrates, proclaimed that the only solution to the Greek issues, were (the cease of civil wars and the end of Persian interference or aggression). That is, the peaceful coexistence and pacification of all Greek city-states, the political unification of all Greeks and the common war against the barbarians, that is to say the Persians and their allies (Kares, Phoenicians, and others).
The 7th of August, 338 B.C., the
Thebans having their ally
3. ALEXANDER THE GREAT
THE CAUSES FOR THE
CAMPAIGN IN ASIA AND
After the battle of Chaironeia (338 B.C.), whereby no city in Greece dared not to respect the Macedonians, the then king of Macedonia Philip II (or Philip The Macedonian), in early 337 B.C. convened in Corinth a congress of the Greeks/Hellenes (The League of Corinth or Hellenic League), a federation of Greek city-states to discuss and resolve the Greek issues (that is, civil conflicts, and the renewed intervention of the Persians into Greek internal affairs, and other). In this congress it was agreed that peace must exist among all Greek city-states and member city-states constitutions, in effect of this date, to be guaranteed and protected. The League would act to prevent any acts of aggression or subversion against any member state. The League would maintain an army and naval force levied from member city-states in approximate proportion to their size.
Philip II was declared Supreme Commander of
the League’s army with full authority to use these military forces in the
The above-mentioned decision at “The League of Corinth” had been also taken because several Greek intellectuals of this period, e.g. the orator Isokrates, proclaiming that the only solution to the Greek issues, were (the cease of civil wars and the end of Persian interference or aggression). That is, the peaceful coexistence and pacification of all Greek city-states, the political unification of all Greeks and the common war against the barbarians, that is to say the Persians and their allies (Kares, Phoenicians, and others).
B. THE ASSASSINATION OF PHILIP II – ALEXANDER THE GREAT
The Persians seeing king Philip II creating a very powerful state, hence a threat to them who until now were the almighty lords of all, they secretly organized and conspired his assassination shortly thereafter the Congress of Corinth or The League Of Corinth (336 B.C.).
Succeeding Phillip II to the throne was his
son Alexander III, thereafter named Alexander The Great. As soon as he
undertook the throne, Alexander convened the Council of Greek city-states,
that is the League Of Corinth (Athenians, Spartans, and others) in Corinth,
which was created by his father, and demanded from the league’s members the
leadership for the military campaign against the Persians in Asia, because of
the Persian intervention in Greek internal affairs and the assassination by
them of his father, Philip. They all accepted except the Lakedaimonians, who
responded by stating that their tradition dictates that the Spartans lead and
do not follow. Consequently, in the campaign in
The ancient writers report:
“The federation of Greek city-states (League of Corinth) having met at the Canal of Corinth, voted and authorized Alexander as Supreme Commander of the league’s army and navy in the military campaign against Persia”, Plutarch, (Alexander 14).
"When Alexander ascended to the throne,
as the son of Assassinated King Philip II and went to
Next, Alexander The Great directed his
campaign first against the barbaric (Skythoans, Illirians, and others) in the
northern borders of
Furiously, Alexander returns and completely
It is also reported that after his nomination as chief commander of all Greeks, Alexander for this occasion visited the philosopher Diogenis the Sinopean in Kraneio near Corinth, since the philosopher himself did not go to see him, and when he asked him if he wanted something, the philosopher replied: " Do not hide from me that (the Sun) which is what you can not give me”.
It is also said that Alexander consulted the
C. THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE BARBARIANS IN
REASONS FOR THE CAMPAIGN
The ancient writer Arrian, in regard to the reasons for which Alexander The Great undertook the military campaign against the Persians, writes about a letter that Alexander The Great sent to the king of Persia, that states the following:
ALEXANDER THE GREAT WAS THE FIRST KING
OF ALL GREEKS AND ANCIENT EMPEROR OF THE WORLD
Alexander the Great, as reported by the writer Arrian (Alexander’s Anavasis) and by biographer Plutarch ("Alexander" and "On Alexander’s Destiny"), after the assassination of his father Philip II and was made king of Macedonia, went to the Isthmus of Corinth and demanded from the council of Greeks (The League of Corinth or Hellenic League) that he be declared and made Supreme Commander of the League’s army and navy and be authorized to commence war against the Persians. All member city-states (Athenians, Thessalians, etc.) accepted Alexander’s proposition except the Spartans who responded by saying that their tradition dictates that the Spartans only lead and that they do not follow others.
THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT
AND THE HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS
Following the sudden death of Alexander, General Perdikas undertook the leadership of the empire (legend has it, that to him Alexander gave the ring prior to his death), who subsequently divided and distributed the empire to the other remaining generals : a) Ptolemy took Egypt, b) Laomedon Syria, c) Filotas Cilicia, d) Pithon Midaea, e) Eumenios Paflagonja, Kappadokia and the neighbouring region, f) Antigonos took Pamfylia and Lykia, g) Asandros Karia, h) Menandros Lydia, i) Leonnatos Frygia, j) Lysjmahos took Thrace and Pontus, k) Antipatros Macedonia, l) Poros and Taxios India, m) Oxyartes took Caucasus, n) Philip took Baktria and Sogdja, o) Tlipolemous Karmania, p) Arhon Babylonia, q) Arkesilaos Mesopotamia, etc.
THE CULTURE AND WORLD-WIDE
CONTRIBUTION OF THE MACEDONIANS
AND ALEXANDER THE GREAT
writers, Greeks and foreigners and particularly: Arrian (B 14, 4), Plutarch
("Alexander" 34 - 47 and "On Alexander’s Destiny or
Virtue" A, 3 - 7, 328-329), Old Testament (
the Great began his campaign into Asia clearly to avenge, that is, to punish
the Persians because they had previously invaded
However, Alexander upon arriving in Asia found a world with wild, untamed and uncivilized customs and traditions, such as, sons marrying their mothers, humans eating other humans, tribal leaders or kings who did whatever pleased them, demanding that they be worshipped as gods, etc.
Under those circumstances, Alexander instead of conquering and punishing started liberating and abolishing tyrannical regimes (that is to say, liberating the populations from the Persian conquerors and the tyrants installed by the Persians from place to place).
parallel, he started to construct cities according to Greek models, that is
to say to demand that the people pursue education (arts & science), to be
free, to live in a system of justice and equality before the law, etc. It is said that he built more than seventy
cities in barbarian lands (countries), and spread throughout
B. Alexander’s philosophy was as follows: We do not regard the Greeks as friends and relatives and the other populations as if they are animals or plants, but all the same, because all people are brothers, equal between them and consequently they must live together peacefully and rightly. We consider relatives all good persons and foreigners or enemies all bad persons. Greek must be everything that is noble and barbaric everything not noble. Through armed force we compel those who cannot be convinced by way of reason, etc. The philosophy and actions of Alexander The Great and particularly his glorious successors were annotated favorably even by the Old Testament.
The ancient writer Plutarch reports:
"After Alexander was acclaimed king of Asia, and wishing also to be honoured by all Greeks, he wrote to them that he abolishes all tyrannical order of things and the ‘status quo’ and that they will be autonomous, and specifically he wrote to the Plataeans that he would rebuild their city, because their forefathers had given their country (city-state ) to the Greeks to fight in their homeland for Freedom...... Subsequently, Alexander selected thirty thousand foreign young men and gave orders that they learn Greek and train with Macedonian arms under the guidance of Greek trainers". Plutarch, (Alexander, 34 - 47).
Alexander built more than seventy cities in the barbarian countries, and he propagated in all Asia the Greek (letters, arts & science, responsibilities, etc.), overcoming the untamed, wild and uncivilized way of life of the native populations........., but the single person who provided the real and factual substance was Alexander himself. That is to say that he did not follow the advice of his tutor Aristotle to act among the Greeks as their leader, and among the barbarians as if he was their absolute ruler, and to treat the Greeks as his friends and relatives, and the other people as if they were animals or plants. If he were to act and behave this way, it would create in his empire innumerable wars, exiles and undermine the positive actions and behavior by negative attitudes.....
He (Alexander The Great) on the contrary, believed that he came as a reconciler and peacemaker for all the world, and for that reason he compelled through armed force those who could not be convinced by way of reason to reconcile with him, and brought together (united) as a single unit people from the various lands and places, uniting and joining in terms of friendship their ways of life, their marriages and their customs and traditions.
He (Alexander the Great) demanded that they all consider their homeland the universe, their citadel his camp, their relatives all good persons and foreigners (strangers) the villains. He did not allow them to distinguish between Greeks and barbarians based upon the mantle and peltast, the sword or cloak, but demanded that the credentials of the Greek elements be recognized by virtue and the credentials of the barbaric elements by malice and wickedness; while clothing, food, marriages and way of life were considered common traits for all people, mixed and intermingled (united) as a single unit of totality with the bonds of blood and the bearing of children. Plutarch, (On Alexander’s Destiny or Virtue”, A, 3 - 7, 328-329).
C. The Macedonians were always the guards
"Tίνος καί πηλίκης δει τιμης αξιούσθαι Mακεδόνας, οι τόν πλείω του βίου χρόνον ου παύονται διαγωνιζόμενοι πρός τούς βαρβάρους υπέρ της των Eλλήνων ασφαλείας; ότι γάρ ει ποτ’αν εν μεγάλοις ην κινδύνοις τά κατά τούς Eλληνας, ει μή Mακεδόνας είχομεν πρόφραγμα καί τάς των παρά τούτοις βασιλέων φιλοτιμίας, τίς ου γινώσκει;" Πολύβιος, (IX 35,2).
THE OLD TESTAMENT, THE MACEDONIANS
AND THE ANCIENT
CULTURES IN ASIA AND
In referencing the Old Testament, in order to see what is being
reported about the Greeks and also about the culture of the populations of
1) All populations from ancient
Apart from Sodoma and Gomara, etc., in the (Second Command, Chapter 12, 29-31) it is reported, for example that many populations, such as the Moabites, Ammonites and others, worshipped god Moloch, who demanded human sacrifices and particularly of children. in the (Second Command, Chapter.18, 9 – 12 and other), after reporting a list of abominations (sins, horrific acts, barbarisms, etc.) by these people (nations), such as sacrifices of children, incest, occultism and magic, it further adds that, “ because of these abominations the Almighty God will send off and destroy these nations before your own eyes”.
In (Levitian – 28), after reporting a series of abominations, such as worship of rulers, sacrifices of children, homosexuality, incest and beastly acts, adds: “you must not be involved and infected with any of these acts, with such acts have been infected the nations, which I send off and destroy before your own eyes. With these acts the nation has been infected, for this reason I will punish it for its lawlessness and will spew its people”.
“Do not get involved and infected with all these, because it is for all these, that I send off (destroy) these nations before your own eyes, and the land has been decontaminated, and I repayed their lawlessness and injustices with the same. Obey always my laws and my commands, and do not commit any of these abominations…Save and protect my commands, so that you will not commit or be infected by any of these abominations… I your Savior”, (Levitian, 12).
2) The Macedonians were Greeks, as well as that Alexander The Great and his glorious successors brought forth peace and tranquility in the lands of the world, etc., i.e:
«Και εγένετο μετά το πατάξαι Αλέξανδρον τον Φιλίππου τον Μακεδόνα, ος εξήλθεν εκ της γης Χεττειείμ, και επάταξε τον Δαρείον βασιλέα Περσών και Μήδων και εβασίλευσεν αντ᾿ αυτού πρότερος επι την ῾Ελλάδα. και συνεστήσατο πολέμους πολλούς και εκράτησεν οχυρωμάτων πολλών και έσφαξε βασιλείς της γης· και διήλθεν έως άκρων της γης και έλαβε σκύλα πλήθους εθνών. και ησύχασεν η γη ενώπιον αυτού, και υψώθη, και επήρθη η καρδία αυτού. και συνήγαγε δύναμιν ισχυράν σφόδρα και ήρξε χωρών και εθνών και τυράννων, και εγένοντο αυτώ εις φόρον. και μετά ταύτα έπεσεν επί την κοίτην και έγνω ότι αποθνήσκει. και εκάλεσε τούς παίδας αυτού τους ενδόξους τούς συντρόφους αυτού από νεότητος και διείλεν αὐτοίς την βασιλείαν αυτού έτι ζώντος αυτού. και εβασίλευσεν Αλέξανδρος έτη δώδεκα και απέθανε. και επεκράτησαν οι παίδες αυτού έκαστος εν τω τόπῳ αυτού. και επέθεντο πάντες διαδήματα μετά το αποθανείν αυτόν και οι υιοί αυτών οπίσω αυτών έτη πολλά και επλήθυναν κακά εν τη γη. και εξήλθεν εξ αυτών ρίζα αμαρτωλός Αντίοχος Επιφανής, υιός Αντιόχου βασιλέως, ος ην όμηρα εν τη Ρώμη· και εβασίλευσεν εν έτει εκατοστώ και τριακοστω και εβδόμω βασιλείας Ελλήνων. (Μακκαβαίων, Κεφ. 1 , 1 – 10)
«Ιδού. Τράγος ήρχετο από της δύσεως επί πρόσωπον πάσης της γης και δεν ήγγιζεν το έδαφος….. και είδον αυτόν ότι επλησίασεν εις τον κριον …. και εκτύπησε … και συνέτριψε και έρριψεν αυτόν κατά γης, και κατεπάτησεν αυτόν…. Δια τούτο ο τράγος εμαγαλύνθη σφόδρα…… Είναι οι βασιλιείς της Μηδίας και της Παρσίας ….. ο τριχωτός τράγος είναι ο βασιλεύς της Ελλάδος ….» (Δανιήλ η Κεφάλαιο)
3) The Old Testament mentions in a particularly distinct and contradictory manner the terms (names) “Greek” and “barbarian”, which means that even the Christian Religion recognizes that, as of old, there were barbarians and that the meaning of the term “barbarian” had precisely the opposite meaning from the term “Greek”, something similar to the tems “slaves” and “free”, the terms “wise” and “fools”, etc., i.e:
«Έλλησί τε και βαρβάροις, σοφοίς τε και ανοήτοις οφειλέτης ειμί..ου γαρ επαισχύνομαι το ευαγγέλιον του Χριστού· δύναμις γαρ Θεού εστιν εις σωτηρίαν παντί τω πιστεύοντι, Ιουδαίω τε πρώτον και Ελληνι»…(προς Ρωμαίους Κεφ. 1, 14 -16)
It is also noted that:
A) In the Old Testament “Hellenist” means no the Greek, but one who admires and worships the Greek gods, the Olympian gods, which was opposed by the Christian Religion, i.e:
«Εν δε ταις ημέραις ταύταις πληθυνόντων των μαθητών εγένετο γογγυσμός των Ελληνιστών» (Πράξεις 6, 1)
B) The Koran mentions Alexander The Great as Prophet. The Buddhists worshipped Alexander The Great as an equal to god, while the Egyptians declared him son of God Ammon. Similarly Saint Bassil and Saint Nektarios cast Alexander The Great.