1) About of dyslexia?. 1

2) What they believed up to today for the dyslexia. 3

3) The real reasons and the treatment of dyslexia. 4

4) Dyslexia, the school books and the systems of writing. 6



1. About of illiteracy. 7

2. The reasons and the treatment of illiteracy. 8












1) About of dyslexia?


Dyslexics are people of normal intelligence, who have trouble reading and spelling. Some of them are even very intelligent. Often dyslexics have other areas of cognition, where they are gifted.

Dyslexia is a severe reading problem of neurological origin in a person with average or above average intelligence, for which there are no other physical, medical, or psychological conditions sufficiently serious to account for the language handling deficits.

Dyslexia causes difficulties in learning to read, write and spell. Short-term memory, mathematics, concentration, personal organization and sequencing may also be affected.

Dyslexia usually arises from a weakness in the processing of language-based information. Biological in origin, it tends to run in families, but environmental factors also contribute.

Dyslexia is a neurological disorder with biochemical and genetic markers. In its most common and apparent form, it is a disability in which a person's reading and/or writing ability is significantly lower than that which would be predicted by his or her general level of intelligence. However, as has been discovered only in the last decade, individuals may read and write perfectly and still have dyslexia (see "characteristics" below).  The term was coined in 1887. People are diagnosed as dyslexic when their reading problems cannot be explained by a lack of intellectual ability, inadequate instruction, or sensory problems such as poor eyesight. Because reading is a complex mental process, dyslexia has many potential causes. From a neurophysiological perspective, dyslexia can be diagnosed by close inspection of the morphology of the brain, usually upon autopsy. Dyslexia is also associated with phonological difficulties, such as enunciation.

Dyslexia is the special difficulty that presents a lot of children at the transformation of oral speech in written or from written speech in oral.  Dyslexia is presented in children, that while they are clever (intelligent) and knows well the oral speech, do not learn well the written with the alphabetical system of writing already from their first contact with this.





The dyslexia is expressed in two levels, the following:

1) In the passage from the written speech in oral, that is to say when it reads the child, which are presented a lot of errors and a lot of difficulties.

2) In the passage from the oral speech in written, that is to say when they write, they are presented a lot of errors and a lot of difficulties.


Simpler, the word “dyslexia” is often used to refer to reading problems, while the symptoms below indicate that a child has dyslexia and therefore needs help:

One of the most obvious — and a common — telltale signs is reversals. People with this kind of problem often confuse letters like b and d, either when reading or when writing, or they sometimes read (or write) words like “rat” for “tar,” or “won” for “now.”

Another sure sign, which needs no confirmation by means of any form of testing, is elisions, which are when a person sometimes reads or writes “cat” when the word is actually “cart.”

Another sure sign is:

Reads very slowly and hesitantly, who reads without fluency, word by word, or who constantly loses his place, thereby leaving out whole chunks or reading the same passage twice, has a reading problem.

The person may try to sound out the letters of the word, but then be unable to say the correct word. For example, he/she may sound the letters “c-a-t” but then say “cold.”

Te person may read or write the letters of a word in the wrong order, like “left” for “felt,” or the syllables in the wrong order, like “emeny” for “enemy,” or words in the wrong order, like “are there” for “there are.”


Reading and learning are the two things that determine the success of a child during his school career. First he learns to read. Then he reads to learn. Reading is therefore of paramount importance in the educational process.


The person may read with poor comprehension, or it may be that he remembers little of what he reads.

The person may have a poor and/or slow handwriting.

Confusion of letters of the alphabet with numbers or reverse the letters and the numbers, writing eg   3 instead of E, 9 instead 6, 12 instead 21.  

The person may have difficulties in the direction of writing sounds of words and in the differentiation of soundly relative sounds of words (b-f, g-h, f-v)

The letters of the alphabet are ugly, disproportionate and   illegible.

The writing is a disorder (confusion), full smudges or much erasing (deletions).

She/he doesn’t begin with chapter letter the proposal, they do not use points of punctuation or they stick the words between them or with the articles or opposite they can separate word or in syllables   or anarchically (without order, rank).

- Usually, she/he do not put accentual marks or him they put error

  Also the dyslexic children have other problems, that in other   they are in bigger and others in smaller degree, that it should we know in order to us they help also these in the localization of dyslexic child, as:

_ She/he present big difference between in oral and in the written speech (record).

_ She/he  present disturbances of orientation and are complicated in the directions in the right and left winger, in on – under, as well as in the configuration of significances of size: big – small.

_ She/he present hyper-moving, hypersensitivity in the criticism and problems of more generally behavior.

- She/he tangles the words-significance, as e.g. she/he wanting to say e.g. "water" and she/he say "river", because   water is the one and water the other or says "wade'".   Similarly wanting she/he say "influence", she/he says "influence", because the words resemble soundly and conceptually.  

- She/he show  do not conceive simple mathematic action or  unable consolidate what is taught.

- She/he forgets easily and asks also ask again the same thing.

- She/he cannot write his name from memory or cannot remember poems or verses or measure from the 1-10….



2) What they believed up to today for the dyslexia


According to the books of Greek schools: "A cause of this crisis could be considered   distance that the various alphabetical systems have from the writing... The oral speech is differentiated at the geographic order and the geographic apartment and us permanently in develop in the time, on the contrary the system of writing he is obligatorily public for all   the speakers and because the persons are tied up sentimentally with the written form of words of their language. We do not read letter to letter, but recognize forms of words as totals with the same way that we recognize the persons of our friends. This problem is exceeded with the suitable teaching, remains however for the dyslexics students".  A second, and more essential, cause for the crisis schools it is that the critical reading current as well as the written expression they are acquired faculties and no innate, as the oral speech.... The world of writing is for the medium person the world of unverifiable disagreement opinions... One French, German or Greek needs twenty years, in order to it acquires complete occasion in the written speech"... (Report-expression on the Lyceum, tey'hos a', Hr. Tsolaki D. Tompaidi....)

According to the G. Payli'di, 1978, the dyslexia is owed   in erratic the ocular movements, that is to say in that the optical system of dyslexic children is different from not dyslexic. In the not dyslexic children first reaches from the eyes in the brain the information of regional sight and then central so that them it gives the time pre to process the information of next word. In the dyslexic children opposite, it says k. Paylj'dis, it reaches simultaneously with result floods the brain from information and of be led to the confusion. Thus we have erroneous and beginning reading.

According to the British professors Tzon Stajn and To'nj Monaco, dyslexia has hereditary reasons.

According to the American woman Dr Sali Se'rgujts, dyslexia   it can be connected with the structure of the brain that is different in the physiologic persons and s’ those that suffer from dyslexia. When dyslexic they read, they have decreased activity, concerning the other, in the behind department of their brain – a region that connects the faculty of with the faculty of writing – while they present hyperactivity in the forward part of the brain. More simply, the dyslexia is owed in the un-regulation of departments of the brain that is connected with the reading. Accordingly, also, with himself the department of the brain that presents abnormalities in the cases dyslexic, is himself   with this   that is accountable for alexia, only that in the case alexia’s the problem is created because the volume in the brain or problems of bleeding (besmearing) of the brain.

According to other researchers the dyslexia is a strange illness, oddity (strangeness) the nature, a training problem that is owed, in the disturbance or in the lack of co-ordination psychic moving (psyhokjnitjko). The dyslexic children activate the right hemisphere   the brain, while their schoolteachers teach with the way that means the left-winger hemisphere, something that appears from the hand   that uses the student. The dyslexic children are late they combine information that emanates from two or more senses or needs a lot of time, in order to they comprehend stimuli via the sight, the touch, the hearing and movement.

According to the Dr of Corrective Education Mr of B. Simos the dyslexia is not an illness, but training problem that is cured, if it is diagnosed in time. The indifference and the dulling lead to irreparable weaknesses. A lot of parents overlook the symptoms that in time they warn for the no and so much the good functional behavior of their child. They consider e.g. that is physiologic a child 5 or 6 years he uses when the right and when the left winger hand, it does not know his age, he is unable he is expressed etc. They believe that their child is still very small and they transfer the problem that swells up later marking the school record and wounding him psychism (psychical, soul) the child.

According to Geschwind , 1962, the dyslexia is owed in neurological sub-function (ypolejtoyrgj'a).

According to Mr A. Tzj'fa dyslexic it is unable it retains in his memory pictures of words and it locates the errors in a word, it is unable it differentiates sounds of words 12#k.a.

According to the occasionally statements of Pan-Hellenic Association Logopedic men, the convenient diagnosis of dyslexia is also the better solution of the problem, applying the proportional method and anticipating other problems. However the who precisely it is this method or who are precisely the courses of teaching that should make a dyslexic' child, in order to it resolves his problem, us it says, hence also this Association it is except reality.


The alone official directive that exists today in the schools for the dyslexic children is the following (Cf. Π.Δ. 465/81, article 4, Π.Δ. 238/88, article 13): the dyslexic children go to the same school with not dyslexic, in order to do not feel decreasingly, and dyslexic are not examined in writing in the examinations only that orally!

  Consequently the Ministry of Education not only has not located in that precisely to be owed dyslexia, but also leaves in the chance and in unskilled (parents and schoolteachers) resolves problem!



3) The real reasons and the treatment of dyslexia


After the dyslexic student is a physiologic intellectually child, however writes in one hand’ incorrectly, ungrammatically (erg writes "won" instead "now") and in other hand tangling them sounds of words (e.g. writes   d instead the, h instead g …), hence this student, does not exist doubt, that he is pretender to scholarship, that is to say does not know well:

a) distinguish sounds of words

b) the equivalence sounds – letters,

c) the rules with which we put in the writing the unanimous letters of the alphabet, the letter Ο instead Ω, Η instead Ι etc. 

The consequence of this is it suffers stress, him it goes up the blood in the head and   as this sub-function the brain and does not know absolutely what makes or it behaves - suffers that also those that suffers agoraphobia or panic. Here it makes ugly letters, n’ avoids it writes, n’ acquires nervousness etc.


The reasons for which a child did not learn well above (that is to say sounds of words, the equivalence of sounds of words - letters, the rules etc.) so that it suffers dyslexia it can it is   a lot of, gentlemen however the following:

1) His negligence or the bad environment that lives (most of the dyslexic children emanate from problematic families, that is to say are children abandoned or children of divorced parents or children of parents that continuously are found in disputes etc.)

2) His sensitivity concerning stress that him it causes on one hand the difficulty of learning of system of other writing and in another hand the vague method of teaching that follows the schoolteacher or his parent.


Consequently dyslexia is no illness, but training problem that is cured.

For   the treatment of dyslexia is required in one hand convenient diagnosis and in another hand:

a) a schoolteacher that would know very well it teaches with patience, insistence and rightly - comprehensibly the system of writing (the sounds of words and letters, as well as their rules of use. Theoretical and practically – with exercises) and

b) a sociologist - psychologist   for the children's mental problems (if they exist) and the balance of environment of child.

(For the right way of teaching of the dyslexic student, see in the book:

 "The Greek system of writing", A. Krasana'kis.


It is marked that:

1) The dyslexic student resembles as if he has psychological problems or in the course he loses the cohesion of his thought, because it works under the state the superficial learning, hence also insecurity - stress. ¶ma you are sensitive, as usually the dyslexic children, and you do not know something well, when compete-contend or you it asks your professor etc, you have fear, distress, insecurity, stress, hence you lose the continuity, (connection, cohesion) or cohesion of your reason etc, hence appear as mad etc.

2) The students with dyslexia have suffered in the substance "block out", if we spoke with terms electro-mechanics or something as those that suffer agoraphobia or panic or vexation, moments at which him we lose also make a mess of it (to throw into disorder) little or a lot. See and that:

a) When we are unread (not having studied) or enervated or impatient, we make errors, we do not learn   etc. while on the contrary, when we are calm, we see the life most beautiful, we make more beautiful letters or drawings, we do not make a lot of errors, we learn more easily etc. For this reasons 12#a'llwste and the speech, written and oral, each person it is also considered mirror his soul.

b) When we made nervous or scares something, eg the difficulty of course or the bad schoolteacher or the robber etc. we tangle or throw into disorder   not only our speech, but also written us, and our calculations etc. Until the orientation to us we lose.

3) The dyslexic children are quick-tempered and at the same time do not know well the system of writing. Thus, when they go they write or they read a text they suffer stress, it goes up the blood in their head with the consequence of neurological sub-function brain and un-coordination their senses, consequently:

Make ugly or erratic letters (good become with constant hand and calm character).

Do not see well or they are late they combine information or stimuli that emanate from two or more senses or him they receive an error.

Do not learn easily the equivalence sounds of words – of letters or they cannot pronounce comfortably all sounds of words or them tangle saying eg "l» instead "r».....

He touches panic with the books or the schoolteacher and     they easily put cry etc.

Make the fool or the old baby, in order to they justify situation or as impasse, speaking   "foolish” or stammering

Be slow and clumsy, when they wear the shoes or the clothes, they cannot use comfortably the scissors.

Be complicated to a button or they wear upside down shoe or the clothes.

_ They do not give the required attention and it slacks keenness theirs.

All go afterward as a chain.

4) Dyslexia would be owed in other reasons (in the otherwise meaning – intelligent cerebral hemispheres etc., assay "special" that saw more before), if:

a) The same students were not clever in other subjects (game, work etc.) and of course in the oral speech that is inexperiencedly difficult than written. Other you learn the equivalence or right use of sounds of words - letters of the alphabet and other the equivalence or the right use of tens of thousands of words-significance.

v) If the children with dyslexia presented also other of intellectual level differences in relation to the other children

5) Many consider as dyslexic children and these with low intelligence, however this is an error, because the dyslexia is a weakness of learning of reading and writing despite the existence of physiologic intelligence and entireness of sensory bodies, as we saw more before.

6) The dyslexic children are usually clever (most clever), because they are quick-tempered (and in vigilance psychological). As long as more sensitive is something so much better yield has or more beautiful things it makes, however and so much more prone they are in the damage (block out)

7) It is not the solution we say that the dyslexic children should not be examined in writing. The solution is located in time the child with dyslexia and his him we cure. The localization of dyslexic children will be supposed to become immediately in the first classes of municipal school from the school advisers.

8) Writing – grammar is the first course with which come in contact the children, hence s’ this suffer the first stress. The stress this child that have also a good schoolteacher, good health – environment – intelligence etc. exceeding. What does not have remain or misspelled, when stopping the education completely, or misspelled,– dyslexic, what pay attention (mind) their education.



4) Dyslexia, the school books and the systems of writing


If we observe when in who children it is also presented the dyslexia, we will see that this is presented only in students that are small and quick-tempered or with various psychological and social problems because problematic environment (divorced parents, bad parents etc.) and at the same time learn reading and writing with alphabetical system of writing. Consequently deep, real reasons of dyslexia   it is the mental - intellectual disturbance (nervousness – confusion) that causes:

1) The inconceivable   historical writing (= the one with their Latin alphabet), which with her horrible difficulty of learning causes neurological sub-function in certain quick-tempered small students with the result than in written their or in their examination they very make a lot of orthographic errors, erratic letters etc.

Us how it is not disturbed intellectually or how it occupies easily a small child the logic eg the writing with the Latin characters, when in this writing other you say and other clerks or other you hear and other clerks It received eg that in the English language we say   "ai'nti'a, taita'n, cap, ghju'rop, se'xpjr.." and write " idea, titan, cup, Europe " … that is to say" jnte'a, titan, kup, Euro'pe, Sakexpeer…, because these words emanate from the Greek and Latin language, where there wrote-pronounced differently:" idea, titan, kup(a) or cupa , Europe or Europa "… In the same writing this letter can have also ten different accents, see: go, on, come, one, to, … where the letter O pronounce when o, when u, when ou, when a, when ua…. Consequently is required the suppression of historical writing of (this with the Latin characters) and the establishment of Greek alphabet of - system of writing.

2) The erroneous current Greek school grammar, which with the arising ap’ this inconceivable teaching fatal it causes neurological sub-function in certain quick-tempered small students with the result then many become dyslexic or functional illiterates. On the other hand this it is also the cause that is today not distributed a book of writing (Grammatical) in the municipal schools. Something error of course, as we will see in the book "False that is said for the Greek writing and language», A. Krassanakis.

3) The erroneous way with which becomes today the teaching of Greek writing. Today, as we know, in the schools the writing is taught memories, that is to say with the placing in a row of written words next to pictures or with we show in a child a written word and him we ask him to learn by heart etc, hence becomes as it becomes also with the writing with Latin characters, hence with very time-consuming (thus it should learn by heart the child a writing of words) and difficult way, if no error, as we will see below.


  (For more see in the book:

"The Greek writing system",  by A. Krasanakis.



It is marked that:

1) The Greek writing, as we saw in the book "the Greek system of writing", A. Krassanakis, are not in one hand something the difficult and in other something the vague or ability that is unable they mean   certain children from working   and poor orders for social and individual reasons, as   say certain school advisers (Cf. "Modern Greek Language" H. Tsola'ki, D. Tompaidi etc...), but   something easy and concrete, concrete symbols (letters A, B, Γ… = In Latin: a, b, c…), concrete linguistic significances (verbs, substantives, conclusions, subjects …)   and concrete rules of use (the rules: neutral   they are written with -o, the verbs with - ω.....: καλό, γέλιο, φυτό, τίμιοκαλώ, γελώ, φοιτώ… = in English: good, laughter, plant, honest..... I call, I laugh, I study..., therefore   or   you know these and clerks or      you know and clerks, otherwise it does not become.   :

2) If we throw a careful glance in the current school grammatical, Greek and foreigners, we will see that in no one it is not reported not only the orthographic rules, but also not precise equivalence sounds of words – of letters, as well as the real number sounds of words and letters. Others they say that sounds of words are 24, other 27, other 5 that became 12 and afterward 24….   The consequence of this they are the students are perplexed also other become illiterates, other dyslexic and other functional illiterates.


 (More however for this subject, see in the book

 "Falsies that are said for the Greek script and Greek language").

















1. About of illiteracy


According to UNESCO:  Illiterate is the person that is not capable writes and it reads comprehending a simple and short report of makes with regard to the daily life.

Functional illiterate he is the person which is not capable to practice all those   necessary activities for which is essential her knowledge writing and reading for the interest of her good operation team and his community, as well as in order to him they allow continue reading and writing so much for his own growth of what his community.  


According to the Greek popular perception: άνθρωπος αγράμματος ξύλο απελέκητο». (= Unlettered man, (is) timber unhewn, blockhead.)

That is to say the illiterate person is the one that, while it reached in a big age, does not know nor it writes neither it reads also consequently it cannot save up his experience   or   invoke the experience of other with the reading etc., hence it has been placed in   second   fate, so much in the work and production what in the spectacle   and entertainment.   



2. The reasons and the treatment of illiteracy


The illiteracy is created because the abstention illiterates at the children's age from the school for various reasons, as: because war (hence closure of schools), professional Status, social and geographic conditions, poverty of (weakness of payment of tuition fees), health (illnesses that involve absences from the course, problems of sight or hearing).  


A) The Greek illiteracy and his cracking down on


According to the General Secretariat of Popular Training in 1984 in Greece of the 35% of farmers were not in place   it reads nor   the titles of newspapers and the 82,8% occupied   in   buildings it had not finished   obligatory education.


Something unacceptable and for this is not to be blamed no other only that the bad perception that has the Ministry Education and our academic professors for the Greek system of writing many years now.

Today in Greece do not exist any more wars, the education becomes free of charge from the state and the Greek system of writing, if it is taught rightly, learned in 30 - 60 hardly thinly, 30 seconds. (Cf. "the Greek system of writing", A. Krasana'ki.), hence could somebody call illiterates in the school and in one or two days to them it learns the Greek system of writing perfectly.

Him it does not make however, because with the way that teaches the Ministry and the University the Greek system of writing (it teaches memories, as with the writing with the Latin characters, as we will see in another part.) is durable (chronic) required learning (6 years, those who the years of Municipal school), hence impossible certain big it now dedicates so much big time interval for something that to him will not bring immediately economic result.


It is marked that:

1) The Greek system of writing is not only perfect, but also easy, light, it is learned in 30 hardly thinly (Cf. the Greek system of writing, A. Krassanakis). However in order that it is reported - it is taught in current school grammatical he becomes unacceptable so that certain children they suffer repulsion or phobia, hence insecurity, stress etc. with consequence dyslexia or their illiteracy (if they withdraw completely from school).

2) Do not exist students clumsy that are unable they mean the mechanisms of Greek writing (if was, would mean also the language, that is not inexperiencedly difficult), but exist simply erroneously and unacceptable school books because of Erasmus, hence also unacceptable school education and for this reason we have:

a) Disability of student to conceive the mechanisms of writing or repulsion and antipathy for learning and school, hence illiteracy or dyslexia from the unacceptable teaching.

b) Chronic education,

c) Of lost a lot of time of schoolteacher, in order to it gives in the student to occupy mechanically something, while these hours it could him teach something else or deal with individual problems of students. And so much other. They go as a chain. (More cf. "Dyslexia")


B) The foreigner illiteracy and his cracking down on


In the foreigner languages (Chinese, English etc.) the illiteracy is in very big degree because of the difficult and unacceptable systems of writing that they have, which create abomination in the student.

The Chinese’s, the Japans…  and other populations write ideographically, hence m’ a system of writing too much difficult and time-consuming in his learning. In order to can somebody write and read m’ this Chinese ideographic system, will be supposed know to learn somewhere 30.000 - 50.000 ideograms, hence an enormous sum of the memory of the student, hence how is not created there abomination in the students and millions illiterates or dyslexics'.

The populations that write with the Latin characters (English men, Dutch etc.) writes historical, that is to say with memorization as a picture of writing the Latin and Greek words (despite that in their country pronounce differently the same words), e.g.: ιδέα, Ευρώπη, οικονομία, cup, Italia…  > idea, Europe, economy, cup, Italy….

Consequently in order to learn eg somebody English student it writes and it reads with this system, it will be supposed mentioned a writing of all words, as eg the word «γιούροπ» = Europe  (from Greek «Ευρώπη»)), something as becomes with the memorization of ideograms. There for something difficult and time-consuming, after are thousands words-writing, hence this system fatal create antipathy and abomination in a lot of students, hence creates from only his illiteracy or dyslexia.

Do the Indians, the Arabs... and other populations write syllabic, with base the pacts, hence with primitive and too much difficult and time-consuming in his learning system of writing, hence how aren't created and here repulsion and illiteracy? (More cf. in the book "World Writing", A. Krasana'ki.)


Conclusion: In order to be been tough with the illiteracy in the foreigner languages and writings, will be supposed their populations to change their system of writing, as said the older linguists.


OBSERVATION: The Chinese’s wanted sometimes they suppress their ideographic writing and they write alphabetically with the Latin alphabet. However this was not realized, because those that dealt with the subject faced very many homophones (same sounds words, unanimous) words and did not know how they exceed this problem. Naturally this problem for the Greek system of writing is game, because it allocates orthographic points (apostrophe, accentual marks, dialytica, resolvents etc.) and orthographic letters (the unanimous, homophones letters ο & ω, η & υ & ι…) that they enter in the homophones (same sounds words) words for discrimination and this no accidentally, but depending on the part of speech, the press and the sound passions of words and thus is untied the problem same sounds words. Of course the unanimous words of language of are not same part of speech and if they are they are not same fall or number, therefore writing the words depending on the unanimous letters ω & ο, αι & ε, ι & υ, η…(where they do not reach them we use also the otherwise accentual marks or the spirits) and is untied the problem. Consequently we recommend in the Chinese’s they are consulted one good Greek grammatical, if they want indeed they change their primitive system of writing.





























Το παρόν βιβλίο είναι μια πρότυπη μελέτη που στηρίζεται  όχι σε θεωρίες και  εικασίες, αλλά σε αυθεντικές και μόνο πηγές, όπως στους αρχαίους συγγραφείς, καθώς σε αναγνωρισμένους, Έλληνες και ξένους, αρχαιολόγους και ερευνητές, των οποίων τα ονόματα αναφέρονται εκεί που αναφέρονται και τα λεγόμενά τους.



































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